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Categories: Interactive Multimedia

gamesFrom video games to enhanced e-books, audio and video sources go beyond music downloads and YouTube video clips. Interactive multimedia has become a larger component of the library's collection over the past decade.

Multimedia involves communication through multiple media such as audio combined with images or multi-player online games. Interactive media is the addition of user control over the presentation of information.

Today's libraries are filled with digital media labs, makerspaces, gaming areas, and other innovative facilities that blur the line between information gathering and creation. Youth may be playing video games, but they may also be creating in Minecraft. Seniors may be playing wii bowling, but also be using audio equipment to record oral histories.

try itTry It!
Explore the Interactive Media (University of Miami) subject guide. Notice that they combine digital media lab, gaming, makerspaces, and other interactive experiences into one area in the academic library.

Video Games

While some people spend their free time watching movies or listening to music, others have embraced video games. Many people can identify themselves as members of the video game generation. From PacMan to Angry Birds, video games are now connected with multiple generations. Both children and teens along with adults enjoy video games. Games systems like Nintendo's wii have even encouraged seniors to get involved with video games.

Video games contain both audio and video elements. Animation is the most typical visual element. Some games even include video clips and narration from television or movies. Video games also usually contain dynamic audio components.

According to Pew Research (Duggan, 2015),

"49% of American adults play video games, and 10% consider themselves gamers. Public attitudes toward games – and the people who play them – are complex and often uncertain... Equal numbers of men and women ever play video games, although men are twice as likely to call themselves 'gamers'."

Video games are an important part of the social life of teens. According to Pew Research (),

"52% of all teens spend time with friends playing video games; 13% play with friends daily."

Gaming is much more than a time-waster, it can stimulate your brain and help you learn. Jane McGonigal, author of Reality is Broker: Why Games Make Use Better and How They Can Change the World, has been featured as a TED speaker discussing the use of games in society.

If you want to engage young people, think games.

"By a large margin, teen internet users’ favorite online activity is game playing; 78% of 12-17 year-old internet users play games online,4 compared with 73% of online teens who email, the second most popular activity for this age group. Online teens are also significantly more likely to play games than any other generation, including Generation Y, only half (50%) of whom play online games." (Generations Online in 2009, Pew Internet, 2009)

Read The Future of Gamification by Janna Anderson and Lee Rainie at PewInternet (2012).

try itTry It!
Go to Gameful. This is a social network dedicated to meaningful and useful games. It's a great place to gather ideas. They have Gaming in Libraries groups you can join.

Categories of Video Games

There are many types of games including video games and computer games. Video games use a console and controllers that are attached to a monitor such as a television set, while computer games are played on the computer. Games are also available as apps on smartphones and other devices. However many people just call everything a video game.

To learn more, go to Wikipedia: Video Games.

Computer and video game genres include action, adult, adventure, board games, educational, fighting, game shows, puzzle, racing, role-playing, shooter, simulation, sports, strategy, and traditional.

Action. In these games, players run, jump, climb, and leap around fantasy worlds from one level to the next. Players move throughplatforms or mazes. Cute characters such as Pac-Man, Frogger, or Donkey Kong, and Super Mario World are often the heroes. The characters are sometimes modeled after television and movie characters. 

Adult. Some games include explicit sex, nudity, or adult situations. These include titles such as Strip Poker and Bachelor Party.

Adventure. You're stranded in a strange land, you're on a secret mission, or you're solving a crime. These are examples of adventure situations where the characters must solve a problem or complete a journey. Players must sometimes collect things such as keys or treasure.

Games such as The Legend of Zelda and Final Fantasy require players to take on the role of a person to complete an adventure or fight battles. Others require strategy such as deploying troops.

Educational. In addition to games, you'll find materials such as thinking puzzles, problem solving situations, and learning games. Many materials are available for young children. Test preparation tools will help students study for the SAT/ACT.

Fighting and Shooting. In fighting games, one player fights one or more opponents using fists as well as weapons. Mortal Kombat and Street Fighter are fighting games. Shooting games require players to shoot enemies and survive. The targets may be space ships, jets, ducks, or people.

Racing. Aircraft, bicycles, boats, cars, go-karts, monster trucks, motorcycles, and snowmobiles are just a few of the vehicles use in racing games. Players control the vehicle and race to win.

Simulations. Have you ever wanted to fly a plane, build a city, or win the presidency? Simulations put the player in a real-life or fantasy situation and ask them to succeed at a mission. Some packages include familiar characters such as the Disney characters.

Sports. In sports games, players compete in a variety of games such as baseball, basketball, football, skating, golf, pool, and wrestling. 

Traditional. Some video games use traditional games as models. Action, adventure, and word puzzles ask players to solve problems to move to the next level. Other games are based on board games, card games, trivia, or television shows. You'll also find games such as pinball and gambling.

To learn more, expore Gale Databases: Video Games.

Console Games

Currently there are many game systems in use. New systems are introduced each year. In many cases, new systems require new media. However, some allow users to continue using older software.

Most game systems include a box and slot for media such as a card, cartridge or disc. Many games require remote controls or other devices such as game pad, gun, headsets, or joystick.

steam Online Games

Online and downloadable games are popular with all ages, but particularly youth.

STEAM is a social entertainment platform where people can create, share, and download a wide range of interactives and games. After installing some software, users can choose from free and inexpensive games. They can also learn to create and share their own games.

Subscription-based Games

Some libraries are investigating options for subscription-based games.

OnePlay "gives libraries the ability to offer an affordable video-game option without the hassle of circulating physical games or purchasing games for multiple platforms. Patrons have unlimited access to over 1,000 popular games from more than 75 publishers." Explore a couple libraries the use this service: Tulsa City-County Library, Appleton Public Library. Watch a video about the service at Des Plaines Public Library.

Games in Libraries

"The inclusion of gaming in a library collection is not unexpected if you take some perspective. Libraries hit a turning point when they made the decision to start including popular media in their collections. By doing so, they shifted their collection development practices to be more inclusive of what their patrons want, embracing the desires of the community. They also opened the door to more non-traditional resources. And by continuing to develop a more inclusionary collection development policy, libraries are laying the foundation for building a collection of ideas." - Brian Mayer, Library Gamer

Many librarians celebrate International Games Day in their library. Other librarians don't see a place for video games in library collections. For the past decade, video games have been popular in libraries. While some libraries circulate game consoles and games. Others simply link to online games and hold programs related to video games.

Many libraries circulate games. Formats vary including 3DS, DS, Gamecube, PC, PS2, PS3, PS4, PSP, PSVITA, Wii, Wii U, Xbox, Xbox 360, and XBox One... others are added as new systems become available. Check out Marathon Public Library's list for examples.

listenListen!
Listen to At Libraries Across America, It's Game On from National Public Radio.
What are your thoughts about games in libraries.

readRead!
Read Phetteplace, Eric & Felker, Kyle (Winter 2014). Gamification in libraries. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 54(2), 19-23. Available through IUPUI.

Read Waldron, Valerie Lynn (July 2 2014). Combining games and libraries: thoughts on the ALA conference. Eaten by a Grue.

try itTry It!
Explore the Video Game Librarian blog. It's filled with ideas for librarians. It's a particularly good website for librarians dealing with collection development issues.
What would you put in a video game blog?

try itTry It!
Go to the Video Game Console Library. Explore the history of game consoles and think about issues related to selecting specific consoles for the library.

Games in Academic Libraries

Over the past decade, academic libraries have increasingly embraced video games.
Explore some university library game collections.

The Science & Engineering Library at The University of California Santa Cruz has over 1,000 games available for checkout along with 40 consoles.

readExplore!
Skim Robson, Diane (2015). Video game collections in an academic library. ALCTS.
This presentation provides an overview of video games in the academic library.

readRead!
Read at least one of the following articles:
Read Burkhardt, Andy (2013). Taking games in libraries seriously. Academic Commons.
Read Collins, Erin (May 22, 2016). Retro video games invade space at university libraries. CBC News.

try itTry It!
Read Szkolar, Dorotea (February 15, 2013). Should video games be in libraries? Infospace.
Visit a few libraries that circulate games. Go to Libraries Circulating Games.
What do you think? What are the pros and cons of video games in the library?

Examine the University of Michigan Eaten by a Grue blog. Think about the pros and cons of video games in the academic library environment.

Games in School Libraries

While many people think of games as strictly entertaining, they also have educational value.

According to Anderson and Rainie (2012),

"young people's interests in gaming will drive the trend to gamifying other aspects of life... young people now and in the future enjoy digital, social gaming, so applying game mechanics across all elements of their lives fits their communication orientation."

readRead!
Read at least one of the following articles:
Elkins, Aaron (May 2015). Let’s play! Why school librarians should embrace gaming in the library. Knowledge Quest, 43(5), 58-63. Available through IUPUI.
Gee, James Paul (2012). Digital games and librariesKnowledge Quest, 41(1), 60-64. Available through IUPUI.
Jensen, Karen (August 26, 2013). Geek is the new black: benefits of electronic gaming in the library, a defense. School Library Journal.
Read Jensen, Karen (July 20, 2016). Video games weekly: video games 101: coming this fall! School Library Journal.
To explore more ideas for games in school libraries, go to Video Games Weekly.

Games in Public Libraries

“Gaming is increasingly in demand in every community. Even though it may seem daunting, gaming events and services are within the reach of any public library.” -- Eli Neiburger in Gamers... in the Library?!

Some libraries provide lists of games youth can play online such as Escondido Public Library.
Explore some public library game collections.

readRead!
Read at least one of the following articles:
Akers, Matt (December 19, 2013). Video game champions in the public library. ilovelibraries. Available through IUPUI.
Boddie, Catherine (2014). Gaming in Libraries. Available through IUPUI.
LeFebrve, Rob (November 6, 2014). Video games and libraries are a good mix, says librarians. ilovelibraries. Available through IUPUI.

 

Multi-User Virtual Environments

Whether exploring a virtual world or enjoying a multi-player game, many library users enjoy building communities online. Multi-user Virtual Environments (known as MUVEs) allow users to immerse themselves in a computer-based world where they can interact with other online users.

Virtual Worlds

Everyone has dreams of flying. When you were growing up, you may have invented a fantasy world, played international spy, or pretended you were on an African safari. Active Worlds is an example.

Today's social technology provides a place for people to create virtual worlds where they can interact with others who share their interests. However keep in mind that many of these virtual worlds are not designed for children. In a report from the Federal Trade Commission titled Virtual Worlds and Kids: Mapping the Risks, warns that minors can easily access explicit content in virtual worlds.

To learn more, go to Wikipedia: Virtual Worlds.

Second Life (SL) (free for basic, but subscription for premium service) is an online community with many of the characteristics of online gaming and simulations. Participants design an avatar including a body and clothing. Then, avatars interact with others as they navigate through a virtual world. Communication takes place through chat, instant messaging, email, exchanges, postcards, rating systems, forums, and groups. However the cool part of a virtual world is the ability to walk, run, and fly. Participants also create objects and build worlds. Each location has coordinates that can be accessed through a web browser that then launches the Second Life application.

videoTry It!
Download the software from Second Life. Try the US Holocaust Museum, Renaissance IslandParis 1900, Book Island, NASA's Explorer Island, ROMA Archeaology, Botanical Gardens, Spaceport Alpha, Virtual Hallucinations, Genome Island, Nonprofit Island, Health Island, Blarney Castle, Mayo Clinic, St. Louis Arch, SJSU, Exploratorium, World War I Training Camp, and MacBeth.
Or, if you're unable to get in check out a MacBeth walkthrough.

readSkim!
Skim The Potential, Pitfalls and Promise of Multi-User Virtual Environments: Getting a Second Life (PDF) by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson in Teacher Librarian (2009). Keep in mind that this article is now a few years old.

Tools like Minecraft allow young people to build their own worlds. This is a game environment that can be downloaded as software, played as an app, or played in a web browser. This virtual world allows users to build and play with their friends. Many school and public libraries have clubs and programs surrounding this gaming and creation tool.

readRead!
Read at least one of the following articles:
Rosales, Romeo (May 4, 2016). Minecraft as a historical education tool. Public Libraries Online.
Hunter, Christyna (May 7, 2014). The Minecraft craze at the public library. Public Library Online.

Examine other examples of MUVEs for children and young adults:

animal crossingMulti-Player Games

Increasingly, people of all ages are involved in online gaming. 

Multiplayer Online Games involve playing through the Internet. In some games, users connect with other players through a game console or other gaming device.

For instance, children often play Animal Crossing with their siblings or friends.

Other online games are played on the computer, tablet, or smartphone using a web browser rather than using separate gaming software.

annetteAnnette's Reflection
Animal Crossing was one of the first multiplayer online games I played with my nephew. Although he was barely able to read, the interactive audio component allowed us to talk and run around together in this virtual world even though we were thousands of miles apart. Now a teen, he's moved on to sophisticated action games. But, he still keeps Animal Crossing on his DS and plays with his younger sister. They both enjoy Minecraft.

People sometimes talk about video games as isolating, but in my case I've found them to be a wonderful way to connect with family and friends.

MMORPGs

MMORPGs (Massively multiplayer online role-playing games) involve online play but may involve a huge number of players. World of Warcraft is an example of a MMORPG.

To learn more, go to Wikipedia: Multiplayer Online Games and Wikipedia: MMORPGs.

Augmented Reality Experiences

Today's games may combine live action activities with hand-held devices and social networking tools. Augmented Reality is a live view of a physical environment with an overlay of computer-generated elements such as sound, video, graphics, animation and usually GPS data. Users may use smartphones, special glasses, and other devices as tools in this environment. Increasingly, this technology is used to create dynamic tours of historical sites or engaged people in place-based gaming.

Augmented reality is being used to create virtual objects in museums and historical sites. Some cities are designing city tours. Headsets can be checked out to visitors as they explore the city. As the technology is enhanced, it may be used to create more collaborative experiences that combine elements of multi-user virtual environments and physical interaction with environments similar to the Holodeck on Star Trek.

To learn more, go to Wikipedia: Augmented Reality.

One of the best known examples of an Augmented Reality Game or location-based game is Pokemon Go! By combining beloved characters with an alternate reality game environment, people from around the world are participating in a shared experience.

pokemon go

videoTry It!
Watch the Pokemon Go! trailer to get a sense for this experience if you haven't tried it yourself.
Then, give it a try. Download it to a smartphone and have a ARG experience.

Alternate Reality Games

An alternate reality games (ARG) are interactive, online narratives using the real world as part of a transmedia storytelling experience. Users become a part of the story through their actions such as calling a phone number or going to particular location.

To learn more, go to Wikipedia: Alternate Reality Games.

The cross-media genre of interactive fiction uses web-based resources and social technologies to engage participants in a gaming environment. Rather than immersing gamers in an artificial world, the narrative elements are accessed through a variety of real-world media such as Twitter postings and YouTube videos. Participants act as detectives following a storyline, collecting evidence, and solving puzzles to further the story. Many television shows and movies (Watchmen, District 9) have used this approach.

readRead!
Read 7 Things You Should Know About Alternate Reality Games (PDF) from EDUCAUSE.
Think about how ARGs could be incorporated into a library setting.

Real-world problem solving may play a part in these gaming environments. With funding from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, The World Without Oil is designed to call attention to and plan for a possible near-future global oil shortage. Although the real-time game ended in 2007, you can still explore the materials and re-experience th game week by week. Lesson plans are also available.

Transmedia Storytelling

Multi-platform storytelling, interactive storytelling, transmedia storytelling, cross-platform, deep media, cross-media, multi-platform, genre-mash, new media storytelling, reading mashups, chaotic reading, format independent, easter eggs, immersive games, collaborative fiction, hybrid, media enhancements, participatory media... are all worlds associated with the multi-platform world.

To learn more, go to Wikipedia: Multi-platform storytelling and Wikipedia: Transmedia Storytelling.

Multi-platform involves using multiple modes of communication to convey a complex, interactive story. Information flows smoothly from one media to the next. The strengths of each media create synergy. The result is something more dynamic than could be done in a single medium.

Turtlepond Books is known for their interactive elements to go with books like Owen and Mzee. These include singalongs, videomakers, and games.

In transmedia storytelling, integral elements of the story are told by different media and each media provides distinct contributions to the participant's understanding of the story. Participants have many different entry points into the story and are able to extend the story through their contributions.

Skeleton Creek by Patrick Carman is a great example of a transmedia storytelling experience. Designed for preteens and teens, the story is written in journal form by a teenaged boy recovering from an accident. While writing in his journal, Ryan receives email communications from his friend Sarah who posts video clips at her website. The video clips are woven throughout the reading experience and are accessed by entering the passwords found throughout the book. It feels a little like the Blair Witch Project from a few years ago. This combination of text and video would be a whole-classroom reading experience. Scholastic provides classroom activities. Also, check out the mobile app.

skeleton creekSkeleton Creekskeleton creek

Connect Books Connections

An increasing number of authors are designing materials that connect print and electronic resouces to tell complex, rich stories. They may incorporate audio, video, gaming, and social technologies to create synergy.

Scholastic jumped into these immersive, multimodal environments a few year ago with the popular 39 Cluesseries. Their Infinity Ring series by James Dashner is another example that incorporates website resources, video, and gaming across platforms. There are even teaching resources. Apps go with the books such as The King of DiamondsRevenge of the Redcoats, and The Way of the Warrior.

ring2ring

Patrick Carman has been at the forefront of extending reader's experiences through online resources including card collecting, clues, and online gaming.

Many of these transmedia environments connect books and television or movies. For instance, Word Girl is a character from a PBS series. The PBSKids website contains adventures and games. At Scholastic, find booktie-ins and apps.

wordgirlwordgirl

Audio-Book Connections. Books and music are often connected. Booktrack is a company that creates soundtracks for books.

readRead!
Read The Soundtrack of Our Books to learn how some authors are connecting music with their works.

The John Denver series of books is one example. Recently, Peter Yarrow has begin to visualize his songs such as Puff the Magic Dragon.

Kaleb Nation created music to go with his book Brian Hambric. Listen to the music that goes with the book.

Rather than a traditional book review project, try a focus. Join a book award project. Focus on a particular genre of book or type of character.

Video-Book Connections. YouTube has become a place where books and video converge. Explore Great Depression Cooking with Clara. Also check the blogbook, and other related resources. Then, create your own. Create your own alternative to traditional oral history projects. Provide an effective foundation before jumping into the project through nonfiction reading opportunities. For instance Greatest Achievements provide an overview, timeline, and an essay on twenty topics. Then, focus on how a particular invention impacted the lives of local people.

Game-Book Connections. Many publishers are connecting games and other interactive experiences with their books. Look for games and interactives to connect with books and reading.

Seek out ways to bring readers and gamers together. For instance, The Last of Us is an interactive, postapocalyptic game focusing on survival. Connect this game with lovers of dystopian fiction like The Hunger Games and Divergent. Keep in mind that many games including The Last of Us is rated M for Mature. Read a review by a high school teen.

last

eye means readRead!
Skim the following three web pages from around 2010. Although all the links may not function, they'll give you a feel for these environments.
 Fluid Environment for Life Long Learning by Annette Lamb.
Divergent Convergence by Annette Lamb.
Transmedia Time: Synergy through Storytelling, Social Technology, Multimedia, and Gaming

Interactive Experiences

Interactive technology is a category of tools and resources that involve dynamic human-computer interaction. Interaction occurs when two or more objects have an effect upon each other. In virtual learning spaces, this interaction often occurs between the human and the computer.

New media is a term used to describe a new generation of media that contain interactive elements. Interactive media is a term that refers to digital systems that respond to a user's actions.

How do you engage learners of all ages? The key is getting people thinking and creating through activities that actively involve them with content. Whether working with a traditional desktop or laptop computer or using tools on a smartphone or iPad, interactive technology provides opportunities to bring learning alive.

Interactives are software tools that facilitate computer to human interaction. In other words, communications are sent between the human and the computer forming a relationship. When people design learning spaces for this type of computer-based interaction, they're sometimes called interactives.

Some examples can be found below. While many of these are games, others are simply interactive experiences, learning spaces, or tools.

Interactive Storytelling

Interactive storytelling combines text, audio, audio, images, animation and/or other features with story elements. For instance, Home: A Ghost Story is an immersive experience that incorporates video, phone calls, text messages, and emails into the story. You become part of the story.

videoTry It!
Go to interactive web documentary Journey to the End of Coal. Think about the types of adventures that young people could make themselves.

In Lure of the Labyrinth, middle school students work through a pre-algebra game at their own pace. With a username/password to track their progress, teachers can guide students through the series of activities two ways: using the story game approach that incorporates web comics, mazes, and quests for information OR through the use of stand-alone math puzzles. The game story approach can also be connected to language arts and mythology. Math by Design is another example from Thinkport.

Lure of LabyrinthLure of Labyrinth

In the Design a Satellite Activity, young people select the technologies needed to create a working satellite. In the end, they see how their satellite compares to a real satellite.

Enhanced Books and Apps

In "The future of reading and academic libraries" David Durant and Tony Horava (2015) discuss how reading is changing. Although their article focuses on the shift to ereading, it also highlights changes that result from the inclusion of the audio and video experience as part of reading.

readRead!
Read Durant, David M. & Horava, Tony (January 2015). The future of reading and academic libraries. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 15(1), 5-27. Available through IUPUI.

ontheroadEnhanced Books

Enhanced or amplified books show how an original work can be expanded with rich content additions. For instance, Jack Kerouacs On the Road is available as an "amplified edition." Find more at Penguin eBooks.

Behind the Beautiful Forevers by Katherine Boo is an enhanced iBook with video. Learn more at the website and watch the video.

The amplified edition of The Pillars of the Earth features video clips, artwork and original music television event based on the book. Watch the video.

 

Many of these special editions are available through Apple as iBooks. The 20th edition of The Game of Thrones is an example. Users can navigate the world of Westeros through interactive maps, illustrations, family trees, and other media.

Enhanced editions are available for the Harry Potter series throught Apple as iBooks.

videoTry It!
Read the Apple News about The Game of Thrones.
Watch The Game of Thrones preview at YouTube.
Think about the features of this interactive book and consider what you'd like to see in other enhanced books.

Apps for Children

Many of the e-book apps for children are much more than static text and images on a page. They may include audio, video, animation, games, and other interactive elements.

While many new books are being published as apps or for e-book readers, a growing number of publishers are reimagining books in the digital format. For instanceHarperCollins apps include books like Goodnight MoonWarrior CatsFreight Train, and 123 Ants Go Marching. The BiscuitPete the CatBig NateFancy Nancy,I Can Read, and Berenstain Bears collection.

Miss Spider's Tea Party for the iPad is an interactive book that contains the classic picture book in addition to multi-touch animation, painting, puzzles, and games.

Ruckus Media Group has introduced a series of e-books beginning including the Curious George collection and A Present for Milo by Mike Austin. Giant Atom is another publishing group introducing ebooks such as Icarus Swinebuckle by Michael Garland.

Check out the Oceanhouse Media Apps where you'll find Dr. Suess, The Berenstain Bears, Little Critter, and more for the iPhone and iPad (shown below).

Go to the Little Critter page and explore samples of the Little Critter books.

Little Critter

Many publishers are exploring ways to use the power of the animation, audio, and video in books. These "enhanced" versions often contain animation, audio, video, or interactive elements such as background information, maps, or quiz questions.

The Pedlar Lady of Gushing Cross from Moving Tales animates the illustrations.

videoTry It!
Watch the movie trailer for The Pedlar Lady of Gusting Cross on YouTube.
Think about the future of enhanced books.

There's a Map on My Lap by Dr. Seuss is a story about maps that children can have read to them or read themselves.

maps

Many children enjoy reading The Magic School Bus series. Consider the interactive app versions. For instance in The Magic School Bus: Oceans, Ms. Frizzle and her students embark on an aquatic journey in this interactive storybook, which features science facts, pictures, games, and videos.

Scholastic has many other great book titles available in this interactive app format such as Clifford's BIG BirthdayI SPY Spooky Mansion, and Arthur Turns Green.

A growing number of books are connecting to movie components. There are also lots of Disney options like Toy Story Read-Along. Many book/movie combinations like Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs have apps.

Voyage of the Dawn Treader is part of the C.S. Lewis series. The iBook contains illustrated interactive quiz questions, a color map, ship blue prints, and character information.

The How to Train Your Dragon interactive book and game is a great companion to the movie by the same name. FrogDog Media's iStoryTime series includes many interactive children's books based on popular animated movies. These books include movies, games, narration, and interaction.

dragon

Teens are drawn to apps for their smartphones and tablets.

Chopsticks is one of a growing number of novels for youth designed specifically as mobile apps. The novel includes interactive elements including audio, video, and images.

readRead!
Read Reading in an iPad Transmedia Universe by Annette Lamb. This series of pages asks librarians to think about the options and impact of digital reading.


Resources

Anderson, Janna & Raine, Lee (May 18, 2012). The Future of Gamification. PewInternet.

Czarnecki, Kelly Nicole. Gaming in Libraries. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2010.

Duggan, Maeve (December 15, 2015). Games and Gamers. PewInternet.

Durant, David M. & Horava, Tony (January 2015). The future of reading and academic libraries. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 15(1), 5-27.

Jenkins, Henry. Reality Bytes: Eight Myths About Video Games Debunked. PBS.

Inverse Genius: Games in Libraries

Kirsch, Breanne (2014). Games in Libraries: Essays on Using Play to Connect and Instruct. McFarland.

Laskowski, Mary & Ward, David (May 2009). Building Next Generation Video Game Collections in Academic Libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 35(3), 267-273.

Lenhart, Amanda (August 6, 2015). Teens, technology, and friendship. PewInternet.

Miller, Kiri (2012). Digital Games, YouTube, and Virtual Performance. Oxford University.

Ratliff, Jacob (2015). Integrating Video Game Research and Practice in Library and Information Science. IGI Global.

Roach, Matthew (2010). Get Your Game On: Video Games - A Primer for Libraries. Voice of Youth Advocates : VOYA, (33)1, 44-45.

The Video Game Revolution 


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