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Production: Editing and Disseminating

Regardless of whether you're using a brand new digital videocamera or a smartphone, there are a number of ways to edit video. Your final product may be a DVD or digital video shared on the Internet. When considering the type of product to create, think about your audience and how they're most likely to use the video.

Editing Options

Although most people are now doing digital recording and editing, let's explore the traditional way of editing video first.

In-Camera Editing

One possibility for some programs is to shoot the entire video in sequential order; thereby eliminating the need to do edit the final copy. In order to do this type of program shoot, a number of conditions have to be met. First, the video program that is planned must be such that it is feasible to make this type of production.

Assemble Editing

The more likely method for shooting a single-camera video is to record the scenes in the best pattern possible, and assemble a final edited version from your original footage. In this case, you do not have to always shoot scenes in the exact order because they can later be assembled into the needed finished sequence. If editing is to be completed, leave seven to ten seconds extra recording before and after each shot. This will make editing much easier. It's useful to keep a log of the shots and their length. This will save your production team valuable time in completing the post-production editing. Also, make sure to shoot more than one take of each scene.

One pattern for shooting a production is to first shoot a medium shot of each scene or sequence for the entire production, making sure that each is as tightly framed on the entire setting as possible. In most cases, this should be repeated at least once or until a best choice is given for editing. Re-shoots of a scene allow both performers and the camera operator to improve the product. The medium shots are followed by shooting all needed close-ups and other special shots or scenes other than a medium shot. Care should be taken to again record the complete audio portion of the program that accompanies each shot.

If a video production has been adequately planned and prepared, the actual shooting takes the least amount of time. The video shoot is considered by most people to be the “fun” part, but it usually can be completed relatively quickly.

Whether you want to create music for a CD, produce your own movie DVD, or build a website containing video clips, you'll need to learn some basic audio and video editing. Luckily, it's easy!

Digital Video Editing

Digital video production has become the normal over the past decade. The only thing you need is the video files and editing software. If you use a Macintosh computer, it's easy. iMovie is a simple, effective package that can do full video editing including titles and transitions. If you want to get fancy, consider Apple's Final Cut Pro. If you use the Window's operating system, there are a number of alternatives such as Windows Moviemaker or Adobe Premiere.

Digital Still and Video Cameras

You may think that you need a fancy video camera to take digital videos. However you can create great video with a digital still camera using the movie clip option. If you plan on using your still video camera for longer video segment, simply purchase a larger memory card.

If you're looking for a video camera for quick, simply productions, consider a flip camera. They're easy to operate and many libraries are checking them out for patron and student use.

Download the Digital Video Basics (PDF) handout by Annette Lamb. Follow the directions. When you've taken your photos, attach your camera to your computer. In most cases, your digital camera came with a cable that plugs into your USB or firewire port on your computer. In some cases you need to install software when you purchase your computer. However most new cameras can be plugged directly into the computer. After hooking up the cable, it may take a few seconds, but a window will open asking if you'd like to import your video. Just following the directions on the screen.

Online Video and Presentation Tools

There are an increasing number of tools for producing online video content. These include tools that will capture screens, create animation from still content, and mix together still pictures and audio elements.

Video Editing Software

Stand-Alone Software

readRead!
Chaves, Jeff (July 2016). Mobile apps buyer’s guide. Videomaker, 22-26. Available through IUPUI.
Gates, Chris (February 2016). Adobe remixes Creative Cloud. Videomaker, 54-55. Available through IUPUI.
Winchell, Quinn (April 2016). Editing software buyer’s guide. Videomaker, 22-25. Available through IUPUI.
Winchell, Quinn (April 2016). Apple iMovie. Videomaker, 13-14. Available through IUPUI.

try itTry It!
As an IUPUI student you have access to lots of software include Adobe tools. Go to IUware to check it out and download what you need. Self-study tutorials are also available.

Video Editing for Tablets and Smartphone

Open Use Image Sources

It's useful to have open use images to weave into video productions.

Open Use Video Sources

readRead!
Rubin, Jonathan (May 7, 2012). Find Free Video Stock Footage. DigitalGov.

Zeilenga, Shawn (September 2016). Stock video, fake it till you make it. Videomaker, 28-33. Available through IUPUI.

Smith, Stephen (September 2015). Stock media. Videomaker, 26-28. Available through IUPUI.

Groner, Danny (2013). 4 ways teachers can use stock footage in the classroom. WeAreTeachers.

try itTry It!
Use the Internet Archive: Moving Images to explore the wide range of moving images available through their site including thousands of open source videos. What do you have to contribute?

Video Editing Techniques

readRead!
Read at least three of the following articles:
Bourne, Weland (August 2015). Analysis of creative opening titles. Videomaker, 42-47. Available through IUPUI.
Cassidy, Kyle (February 2015). The only essential transitions. Videomaker, 44-46. Available through IUPUI.
Cassidy, Kyle (July 2015). The basics of titles and graphics. Videomaker, 44-47. Available through IUPUI.
Cassidy, Kyle (March 2016). Developing a signature style. Videomaker, 49-50. Available through IUPUI.
Gates, Chris (April 2016). Montage then and now. Videomaker, 50-51. Available through IUPUI.
Gates, Chris (May 2016). Using text the right way. Videomaker, 56-58. Available through IUPUI.
Gates, Chris (September 2015). Typography for motion graphics. Videomaker, 58-60. Available through IUPUI.
Zunitch, Peter (September 2015). An editing theory primer. Videomaker, 46-49. Available through IUPUI.

Video Exploring and Sharing Considerations

readRead!
Read the following articles:
Lindblom, Odin (December 2015). The right codec for your video. Videomaker, 55-56. Available through IUPUI.
Riismandel, Paul (March 2014). Choosing a captioning service. Streaming Media Magazine, 170-173. Available through IUPUI.

Online Video Editing Practice

Before jumping into video editing with students, consider a couple online experiences with editing.

My Pop Studio

Try your hand at editing a television reality program. Designed for teens, My Pop Studio is a creative play experience that strengthens critical thinking skills about television, music, magazines and online media directed at girls. Users select from four behind-the-scenes opportunities to learn more about mass media. Start with the TV Studio option. You can create a login or Skip it. Then, click Teen TV Producer and have some fun. How does this type of environment help students learn about writing, editing, and storytelling? If you have time, try the other sections.

YouTube Tools

YouTube provides tools to help with video production.

The YouTube: Editor is a great choice if you have limited video editing capabilities. Explore some of the following resources

try itTry It!
Go to YouTube: Editor.
Read the directions for using this online editor.
Create a video!

Digital Audio Editing

A number of software packages are available for editing sounds. However the easiest package is FREE! Use Audacity to record and edit sounds. You can even mix sounds together. It's quick and easy to learn. If you want to export as an MP3 for use in video editing software, be sure to download the LAME MP3 encoder as an optional download.

Stand-Alone Software

try itTry It!
As an IUPUI student you have access to lots of software include Adobe tools. Go to IUware to check it out and download what you need. Self-study tutorials are also available.

Web-based Software

Audio Sharing Websites

There are a growing number of websites that specialize in storing and sharing audio files. Some are free and others are premium services. Most of these websites allow you to upload files, then embed them in your blog or other locations.

Open Use Audio Sources

You don't need to create all the sounds and music elements yourself. There are online resources that allow users to freely use materials.

If you have funding, I'd suggest getting a subscription to Soundzabound. It's great, royalty free music for young people to use into their projects.

You can also find sources of free and open source materials. However be careful to read the guidelines to determine whether you are free to redistribute what you create. You can do a search of Creative Commons for many more resources.

If you're looking for free music to play with your movies, check out Freeplaymusic.com. Check out great Digital Audio: Tutorials and Resources by David Hitt from Plano ISD.

Features of High Tech Sound

You don't need much to technology to get started producing your own sounds.

Option 1. Use pre-recorded sounds. For instance, you can use online recordings such as The Declaration of Independence MP3.

Option 2. Use the microphone built into your computer or add an inexpensive portable microphone that can be plugged into the microphone port on your computer. Locate existing software that has a record option. For example, you can record sounds inside Microsoft PowerPoint, Kidspiration or Inspiration, and KidPix. There's no need to edit, simply delete unwanted sound files.

Option 3. Use free or inexpensive sound editing software such as Audacity or Apple's Garageband. These tools allow you to record and edit audio file, add music, rearrange segments and product high-quality programs. You might also want to buy a quality external microphone for higher quality and recording situations such as singers and interviews.

Option 4. Add additional elements such as audio mixing software, high-quality microphones, and external mixers. Tools such as Mixere allow you to mix audio clips and adjust sound levels. On the high end, you can add external mixers and recording devices.

Sound Studio

You don't need a fancy sound studio to produce high quality sound. In most cases you can simply sing or talk directly into your computer. However if you're working in a classroom setting, it's nice to have a small, quiet area set aside for production. An old study carrel, a small room divider, or a blanket all work fine. Although they may not help with the sound, they'll make the actor feel more comfortable.

Foley Stage

Build a Foley stage.

Audio Editing Techniques

readRead!
Read Ivanov, Blag (June 2016). 11 bad audio habits to avoid. Videomaker, 48-49. Available through IUPUI.
Read Rosenthal, Marshal (August 2016). Audio editing software. Videomaker, 22-27. Available through IUPUI.

Student Audio Experiences

readRead!
Delzer, Kayla (December 14, 2014). Using AudioBoom in the classroom to improvise reading fluency. EdSurge.

Presentation Tools

Many presentation tools either incorporate audio and video or feature tools to export in audio and video formats.

Although many people continue to use Microsoft PowerPoint or Apple KeyNote for producing presentations, online tools have gained in popularity.

Storytelling and Animation Creators

Children of all ages enjoy creating stories. Many online tools can be used to help produce these exciting products.

Screencasts

Screencasts are excellent tools for creating online tutorials. These tools export the results as video files that can be shared on websites or video sharing websites.

readRead!
Murphy, Jason & Lieu, Chern Li (2016). Reflecting the science of instruction? Screencasting in Australian and New Zealand academic libraries: a content analysis, 42, 359-272. Available through IUPUI.
Oliver, John T. (July 2016). Come fly with me: screencasts with zooming fly-in-style highlights. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 43(4), 401-410. Available through IUPUI.

try itTry It!
Create a screencast talking users through the use of an audio or video source. Be sure to including multiple examples and search strategies.

Audio and Video Sharing

When it comes to sharing audio and video on the web, YouTube for video recordings and SoundCloud for audio recordings dominate.

Video for the Web

Keep your projects short. For example, create multiple short segments if your video is over five-ten minutes. Check the length of the videos you find on YouTube and you'll see that most are 3-5 minutes.

Uploading your video to YouTube is easy. After registering, you'll see an option to UPLOAD. Simply find the video on your hard drive and click the UPLOAD button. It will generate a URL for your YouTube video!

If you work in a setting that filters YouTube, consider using SchoolTube or TeacherTube to house your work. Many people are also using Vimeo. Use Vine for very short videos.

Notice the many services used by New York Public Library.

Audio, Video, and Social Media

From vlogging and podcasting to Snapchat, audio and video are an important part of social media.

readRead!
Read at least two of the following articles:
Abramson, Randy (January 30, 2015). Social Video: Making Sense of the Facebook and YouTube Platforms. DigitalGov.
Abramson, Randy (January 8, 2016). Five Ways That Video Will Continue to Evolve on Facebook. DigitalGov.
Anderson, Ricky (August 2016). Facebook video and sharing. Videomaker, 62-63. Available through IUPUI.
Fritts, Erik (May 2015). Facebook vs YouTube for video. Videomaker, 52-53. Available through IUPUI.
Johnson, Marc (June 2016). Why Snapchat is worth using. Videomaker, 62-63. Available through IUPUI.
Lange, Patricia (Spring 2015). Vlogging toward digital literacy. Biography, 38(2), 297-302. Available through IUPUI.

Video Management Platform

Most libraries are involved with some type of video video management platform. In many cases, this platform has already been chosen. For instance, at IUPUI faculty can save and share videos in Canvas.

readRead!
Read Riismandel, Paul (March 2015). Education Video Platforms. Streaming Media Magazine, 152-155. Available through IUPUI.


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