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Information Access and Use

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Develop and implement plans for user access to library content.
Describe user behavior in a digital library environment.

This page will explore users, information-seeking behavior, user experience, and usability issues in the digital library environment. Then, consider ways to promote access and active engagement with digital library content.

try itTry It
Visit the MOMA's Object:Photo project. Notice all the amazing visualizations connected to the digital collection of modern photographs. While a collection of digital objects is still at the core of the project, the website provides an assortment of tools that allow users to explore artists and their works in an innovative way. 

dplaDigital Library Spotlight

The DIGITAL PUBLIC LIBRARY OF AMERICA is a portal that brings together resources from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States.

Contents: This website provides access to digital objects related to cultural heritage. The easy-to-use search engine contains both basic and advanced tools for locating items. One of the innovate aspects of the website is the ability to browse millions of items by timeline, map, format, subject, and partner. The Exhibitions section uses digital objects to tell stories of national significance. Nearly three dozen thematic exhibits are available on topics such as urban parks, race tot he moon, and prohibition. The Map section allows users to click on a US map to zoom into regional, state, and local digital objectives. The Timeline permits visitors to zoom in on resources related to a specific year or decade. The Education area provides teaching and learning resources for educators including primary source sets. The App Library extends the experience by providing a variety of tools to visualize and use digital resources.

Connections: Librarians will find this website to be an excellent springboard for activities focusing on primary sources, history, and culture. Use the primary source sets and exhibitions to engage users in fascinating documents related to historical themes.

To visit the website, go to https://dp.la.

The User

2 usersBefore jumping into matching information seekers with digital objects, librarians need to understand the different types of information seekers, their needs, and their behaviors.

Fox and others (2011) define users as

"the various actors (whether human or machine) entitled to interact with Digital Libraries. Digital Libraries connect actors with information and support them in their ability to consume and make creative use of it to generate new information. User is an umbrella concept including all notions related to the representation and management of actor entities within a Digital Library. It encompasses such elements as the rights that actors have within the system and the profiles of the actors with characteristics that personalize the system’s behavior or represent these actors in collaborations."

Daniel Teruggi (2010, 33) describes four types of users of digital libraries:

Einar Rottingen is a pianists. In his article "A Pianist's Use of the Digitized Version of the Edvard Grieg Collection", he provides a user-perspective on using music collections suggesting that users provide an important role in understanding the practical aspects of a collection.

"I believe that the access to scores and archives on the net is important for the future interest in the classical music tradition. It will strengthen the music’s possibility to reach out and sustain its position in our culture with the possibility of gaining greater interest in the composers, their music and scores. As a user, it has been inspiring to see the recent development in digitalization. I am sure that this is something that Grieg and his colleagues in their wildest fantasies did not dream of could happen! The development is truly sensational, something we tend to forget, as we as human beings quickly become accustomed to taking any new revolutionary technological development for granted." (Rottingen, 2010)

Rottingen concludes that users and collection developers need to work together.

"Our motivation for collaborating should simply be that we all have a common interest in making this cultural heritage obtainable and alive for the present and future generations. In the seemingly cultural chaos of today’s world, we need this attitude of “preserving for the future” more than ever."

Individual Differences

Not all information seekers are alike. Race, national origin, religion, age, sex, gender identification, sexual orientation, handicap, marital status, political affiliation, belief, veteran status, and many other factors can impact information needs and information seeking behavior.

Read Singer, Dev & Agosto, Denise (November/December 2013). Reaching senior patrons in the digitized library. Public Libraries, 52(6), 38-42.


teacherWhen building a digital library, Witten, Bainbridge and Nicholas (2010, 56) note the importance of determining whether resources will be available to the public or restricted to a target group. They suggest that many digital libraries permit access to metadata, but restrict use of full digital content to registered users.

Anonymous Use. Witten, Bainbridge and Nicholas (2010) note that "librarian have always been concerned about protecting both freedom of expression and the privacy of patrons". They suggest that libraries typically allow anonymous access to some digital resources. However to borrow materials, identification is necessary. Many users don't realize that electronic fingerprints that are left behind whether they use a library computer or enter through remote access points.

Authenticated Use. When many users access resources at the same time, there are implications for speed and access. Witten, Bainbridge and Nicholas (2010, 56) suggest three ways to mitigate potential problems:

Technology Skills

From smartphones to tablets, people have grown accustomed to the use of technology for all types of information activities. Whether downloading ebooks or searching a digital collection, use of the digital library requires a wide range of technology skills. This can impact the ability of some users to access information sources. According to Katie Elson Anderson and Vibiana Bowman Cvetkovic (2015),

“there has been a natural maturation in users’ technological skills. Technical support questions have become more advanced as the population has developed greater computer competencies. People know more about technology; therefore, they can ask more complex questions about technology. Users in general are now more competent in the use of computers and searching the web. This increased competence can create overconfidence as well as foster a reluctance to seek assistance. It can also create great frustration when the information sought eludes discovery”.



Rather an using broad categories to pigeonhole information users, it can be useful to develop personas to help you visualize library clientele.

questionpersona is a fictional character invented to represent a particular type of user that might use information sources and services in a similar way (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2010).

User personas may describe the goals and behaviors of a group of users based on real-world traits and characteristics. These personas can be used to help librarians as they anticipate user needs, develop websites, and market materials.

Whether working with faculty and students in an academic setting or connecting with a more general audience in a public library, it's important to know your audience. Developing personas can be an effective way to think about the needs of groups of individuals.

Personas are often based on scholarly research or locally collected data about actual users. The result is a 1-2 page description that contains goals, needs, interests, and behaviors of this type of individual. The development of personas is often one step in designing effective user interfaces in a digital library environment.

try itTry It!
Read Hathitrust Personas (also an online version). These persona were developed to represent Hathitrust users. Also, check out Personas and A User Centered Approach from Stanford University Libraries. Think about how personas could be applied to the digital library setting including online information sources and services. What specific data would you want to collect from library users in terms of information seeking and behavior? How would this be useful in building personas?

katie persona

Think about specific digital collections and how they might be used by specific types of users.

pioneersDigital Collection Spotlight

Pioneers in Your Attic
from the Mountain West Digital Library contains digital objects related to the 18th century.

: Launched in 2013, this collections explores a wide range of topics related to the 19th century overland migration including transportation, trail and camp life, encounters with Native American tribes, diseases, medicine and surgery, politics and government, gold rush, religion, and perspectives from multiple viewpoints.

Connections: Involve youth in tracking the the westward movement from various perspectives. Ask each student to explore a different aspect such as transportation, camp life, or encounters with Native Americans. Or, explore resources by primary source type such as diaries, letters, and photographs.

Featured Digital Objects
Drawing of Wagon Master https://goo.gl/6aZf02
Crow, Black Lodge Camp https://goo.gl/7p2ggY
To visit the collection, go to http://mwdl.org/portals/pioneers.php.

Digital Library Needs

reportsIt's important to survey library users to determine their needs. In some cases, data can be collected directly from the digital library website. However, general surveys can also be useful.

For instance according to OCLC (2014), college students are increasingly learning online. nearly half of all Internet used have taken a course, class or tutorial online. OCLC (2014) asked online degree college learners about the use of the library.

More of these students used the online library (28%) than the physical library (14%). However, a majority of online users aren’t using the library at all. The reason given by 43% of students for not using the library is that the “library just didn’t come to mind”. However, 83% of those that used the library said that it was a valuable experience and helped them reach their goals.

The most commonly used service through the library website (52%) was accessing article and journal databases. The services that online students indicate are important in their digital library are access to materials (71%), access to freely available information on the Web (69%), tools for conducting research (66%), instruction on using library resources (61%), and consultation on how to conduct research (61%).

Another way to better understand the needs of users is by reading the research.

Read at least THREE of the following articles focusing on the needs of digital library users.

DeRidder, Jody L. & Matheny, Kathryn (July/August 2014). What do researchers need? feedback on use of online primary source materials. D-Lib Magazine, 20(7/8). Available online.

Fenlon, K., Senseney, M., Green, H., Bhattacharyya, S., Willis, C. and Downie, J. S. (2014). Scholar-built collections: A study of user requirements for research in large-scale digital libraries. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 51: 1–10.

Green, Harriett E. & Courtney, Angela (July 2015). Beyond the scanned image: a needs assessment of scholarly users of digital collections. College & Research Libraries, 76(5), 690-707.

Hyman, Jack A., Moser, Mary T., Segala, Laura N. (2014). Electronic reading and digital library technologies: understanding learner expectation and usage intent for mobile learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 62, 35-52.

Lage, Kathryn, Losoff, Barbara, & Maness, Jack (October 2011). Receptivity to library involvement in scientific data curation: a case study at the University of Colorado Boulder. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 11(4), 915-937.

McLure, Merinda, Level, Allison V., Cranston, Catherine L., Oehlerts, Beth, & Culbertson, Mike (April 2014). Data curation: a study of researcher practices and needs. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 14(2), 139-164.

Zavalina, O., & Vassilieva, E. V. (2014). Understanding the Information Needs of Large-Scale Digital Library Users. Library Resources & Technical Services, 58(2), 84-99.

Information Seeking Behavior of Digital Library Users

“Information seeking refers to the practical process of obtaining the information needed via specific information databases or information networks… The ways in which information users search information in the digital age depend ultimately on the information resources and information search tools they use” (LiLi, 2014, 127).

In The Virtual Scholar, David Nicholas (2010, 30-31) describes scholar information-seeking behavior in a virtual environment. He notes

"in broad terms then the scholar’s information seeking and usage behaviour can be portrayed as being frenetic, pragmatic, bouncing, navigating, checking and viewing. It is also promiscuous, diverse and volatile... we (young and old; the naïve and those that know better) have taken to fast information as we have to fast food.

As a society and profession we are going to have to face up to the consequences and a good start would be to wake up to what has actually happened to our users. Only then can we determine for ourselves the consequences that result from what is absent from increasing numbers of our customers – a lack of a mental map, no sense of collection, and a poor idea of what is good and relevant. Understanding information seeking behaviour in the digital space is a prerequisite to determining academic outcomes – positive and negative. Then we shall be in a position to determine whether we are really benefiting from the information society and always on information, and if not, whose responsibility it is?"

Read at least THREE articles about the information seeking behavior of digital library users.

Albertson, D. (2015). Visual information seeking. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 66: 1091–1105. 

Copeland, A. J. (2011). Analysis of public library users' digital preservation practices. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 62: 1288–1300.

Corlett-Rivera, Kelsey & Hackman, Timothy (April 2014). E-book use and attitudes in the humanities, social sciences, and education. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 14(2), 255-286.

Cunningham, S. J. (2011). Children in the physical collection: Implications for the digital library. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48: 1–10.

Huang, C. and Xie, I. (2011). Help feature interactions in digital libraries: Influence of learning styles. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48: 1–10.

Lee, J. H., Cho, H. and Kim, Y.-S. (2015). Users' music information needs and behaviors: Design implications for music information retrieval systems. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 

Plum, Terry & Franklin, Brinley (January 2015). What is different about e-books?: A MINES for Libraries analysis of academic and health sciences research libraries’ e-book usage. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 15(1), 93-121.

Sinn, D. and Soares, N. (2014). Historians' use of digital archival collections: The web, historical scholarship, and archival research. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65: 1794–1809.

Zavalina, O. L. and Vassilieva, E. (2012). Longitudinal comparative analysis of item-level and collection-level user searching in a digital library. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49: 1–4. 

The User Experience

Many library users enjoy the experience of browsing books on the shelf and paging through individual titles. Digital librarians are seeking ways to bring that rich, multi-sensory experience to the online environment.

The University of Utah's Marriott Library Bridging the Gap program is addressing the issue of user experience. Their goal is to bring users closer to digital objects.

Watch Bridging the Gap (University of Utah - J. Willard Marriott Library). This video clip describes a digital library's approach to building an effective digital experience for library users.

Fox and others (2011) define functionality as

"the services that a Digital Library offers to its different users, whether classes of users or individual users. While the general expectation is that DLs will be rich in capabilities and services, the bare minimum of functions would include such aspects as new information object registration, search and browse. Beyond that, the system seeks to manage the functions of the Digital Library to ensure that the functions reflect the particular needs of the Digital Library’s community of users and/or the specific requirements relating to the Content it contains."

It's important to ask users what they think about the usefulness of digital collections. For instance, Patrick Spedding (2011, 446) notes that "even scholars working on commonplace eighteenth-century texts will encounter difficulties based on the selection of texts represented on ECCO". In his article, Spedding describes the specific problems he encountered in using this digital collection of eighteenth-century texts.

Read Breeding, Marshall (May 1, 2014). Strengthening engagement with virtual visitors. Computers in Libraries, 34(4), 19-21.
Spedding, Patrick (Summer 2011). “The new machine”: discovering the limits of ECCO. Eighteenth-Century Studies, 44(4), 437-453.

national centerDigital Collection Spotlight

project contains a database of active learning techniques focusing on science education.

Contents: The emphasis is on case studies and problem solving. The collection includes over 645 cases and dozens of science education stories. Users can search by heading, educational level, type, topic, and date.

Connections: Use this collection to provide teachers with unit and lesson ideas that emphasize active learning techniques. Look for projects that place emphasis on inquiry-based learning and science to library connections.

Featured Digital Objects:
Collections - http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/collection/
To visit the collection, http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/.



important data collection

Most digital libraries maintain guidelines for the development of the websites that provide access to digital collections. Many libraries develop guidelines and policies for publishing digital collections as well as using their collections.

Read Chow, Anthony (2013). The usability of digital information environments: planning, design, and assessment. In D. Baker and W. Evans (eds.), Chandos Digital Information Review : Trends, Discovery, and People in the Digital Age. Jordon Hill, GBR: Chandos Publishing, 13-37. Available as an ebook through IUPUI.

Read Mitchell, Emily, West, Brandon & Johns-Masten, Kathryn (May/June 2015). Revitalizing library services with usability data: testing 1,2,3. Computers in Libraries, 35(5), 11-14.

try itTry It!
Read Prerequisites for Publishing a Collection in CARLI Digital Collections (University of Illinois).
Read Creating a Presence in the Image Collections Online Site. This wiki page provides an overview of the required elements for their collection websites.
Select a digital website to explore. Create a list of data you would collect about website use. Then, create a list of strategies to improve the usability of the website.

City Readers provides a Reader's Guide this assistance in using their digital collection.

city readersDigital Collection Spotlight

from the New York Society Library is a project sharing the borrowing records of library users from 1789 to 1805.

: Users can browse or search more than 100,000 records of books, readers, and borrowing history from the New York Society Library’s Special Collections. Users can also explore featured content including visualization tools, circulation records, female records, founding fathers, and library catalogs.

Connections: Use this amazing collection to teach students about the use of library records in history. These records provide unique insights into library users and their reading habits along with information about books and their readers.

Featured Digital Objects:
Visualizations http://cityreaders.nysoclib.org/About/visualizations
Female Readers http://cityreaders.nysoclib.org/Gallery/60
Founding Fathers http://cityreaders.nysoclib.org/Gallery/46
To visit the collection, go to http://cityreaders.nysoclib.org/.

Search Tools and Strategies

computer typingOne way that librarians increase the usability of their digital library is by providing users with strategies for making use of their digital resources.

While some librarians provide tips lists or PDF guides, others include video tutorials and other resources. Keep in mind that many digital libraries use the same underlying search tools, so you may be able to adapt resources you find online for your own project.

Libraries may establish a wide range of online services to meet the needs of digital library users such as

Digital Library Spotlight
The Mountain West Digital Library is built in Ex Libris Primo. This integrated discovery tool that delivers powerful search capabilities to it's users. The MWDL Primo Search Portal provides a list of tips as well as a video tutorial for searching both MWDL and DPLA. The standard search allows users to refine results by resource type, author, date, topic, collection, spatial coverage, or language. It also provides an Advanced Search tool that includes materials type and language.

try itTry It!
The Smithsonian's CollectionsSearchCenter can be used to search over 9.1 million catalog records of museum objects and library & archives materials. It contains most of the Smithsonian's collections. Explore a list of collections. Then, check to see if resources are provided to help users access the collections.

Many libraries provide introductions, chapters, sub-collections, and other resources to increase access to digital objects.

immigrationDigital Collection Spotlight

explores the aspirations, acculturation, and impact of immigrants through a wide range of primary source documents.

: Part of Harvard University Library’s open collections programs, this digital collection features historical materials from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. In addition to browsing for digital objects, users can explore materials by topic including the immigrant diaspora, new lives, and restricting immigration.

Connections: History and social studies teachers will find a wealth of useful resources in this collection that connect directly to the standards. Of particular note are the many acts and other legal documents associated with immigration. In addition, students will enjoy the diaries, photographs, and other documents related to the everyday lives of immigrants.

Featured Digital Objects
The Chinese Exclusion Act http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/exclusion.html
The Statue of Liberty http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/statueofliberty.html
California Gold Rush http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/goldrush.html
To visit the collection, go to http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration.

Discovery Practices and Priorities

In 2014, a survey was conducted to gather information from academic libraries about their resource discovery practices and priorities. The following highlights were identified.

Search Portals

In addition to the search bar and advanced search options provided by most digital libraries, some libraries provide more advanced search portals. These portals provide a focused search based on the type of digital collection being accessed.


Digital Library Spotlight
The Geospatial Information Portal at University of Utah's J. Willard Library provides unusual access to their digital collections by featuring geospatial tools in connection with digital objects. This provides an additional way to access digital objects beyond the standard search bar.

Digital Library Spotlight
The Mountain West Digital Library Search Portals "help you search on only a subset of items based on subject, location, time period, or type of resource". Four portals are currently available through MWDL.
EAD Finding Aids. Finding aids provide a register or inventory of physical collections. The common standard known as Encoded Archival Description (EAD) is used to identify items. A search tool is available to search these finding aids. They can also be browsed by subject, type, or institution.
Mountain West Digital Library Maps. Digital maps are used to highlight the geospatial coverage of collections. These maps use item metadata along with Google Maps, Viewshare, and Google Fusion Tables to generate maps. Resources can be displayed by country, state, county, or city. In addition, comparisons are available by county or city.
Mountain West Scholar. This portal provides access to scholarly resources from institutions across the Mountain West. In addition to a standard search, users can also browse collections, view collection descriptions, and explore individual institutional repositories.
Pioneers in Your Attic. The Utah Academic Library Consortium along with MWDL developed "a pioneer legacy digital project wherein 19th century overland migration will be examined from every aspect of this great transcontinental movement". Users can use the standard search bar or browse collections and collection descriptions.

try itTry It!
Explore each of the four Mountain West Digital Library Search Portals. Think about what type of information seeker would likely use each of the four search portals. Create personas to match these "typical" users. What specific types of questions could be addressed using each of these portals?

Interactive Inferfaces for Discovery

jeffersonWhile digital collections traditionally contain digital objects that can easily be identified individually using a database and search tool, some developers have chosen to create an interactive interface for browsing items.

For instance, users visiting the Envisaging the West: Thomas Jefferson and the Roots of Lewis and Clark digital collection (University of Nebraska-Lincoln and University of Virginia) can use the digital objects three ways: Thematic View, Visualization View, and Archive View.

The Civil War on the Western Border from the Kansas Library contains primary source materials as well as interactive features including an interactive map, timelines, and relationship views.

Increasingly, apps are being developed to supplement digital collections. Ripped Apart from Smithsonian's National Museum of American History is a Civil War mystery app based on the museum's amazing photographic history collection.


Let's explore some different approaches to browsing and digital object discovery.

national mallMulti-faceted Interfaces

From maps and timelines to word clouds and games, many digital collections are building in dynamic elements that immerse users in digital objects and build an interactive experience.

Theme-based Approaches

Some digital collections contain online exhibits or provide a browseable interface based on themes.

Image-based Interfaces

Some digital collections provide an attractive or engaging image that serves at a focal point for exploration.

roaring twenties

Map-based Interfaces

Maps are an effective way to help users explore place-based digital objects.

Timeline Interfaces

A timeline can be used to help users locate digital objects from particular points in time.

Game Interfaces

Game interfaces actively engage users with digital objects from the collection.

probingTeaching Interfaces

From lesson plans to interactive activities, some digital collections build in teaching and learning resources into the collection.

Smithsonian Education contains lots of examples of how engaging activities can be used to explore digital collections.

Reference Book Interfaces

Some digital collections embed digital objects into a reference book environment. The encyclopedia, handbook, or almanac format is often used for these types of projects.

try itTry It!
Explore the digital collections above. Then, look for other digital collections that use interesting approaches to digital object discovery. Think about how the interfaces impacts the user's experience. Consider how the interface accesses the digital objects in different ways.

Read Fast, K., & Sedig, K. (2010). Interaction and the epistemic potential of digital libraries. International Journal On Digital Libraries, 11(3), 169-207.

womenDigital Collection Spotlight

WOMEN WORKING, 1800-1930
is digital collection including Harvard Library associated with women’s history.

Contents: This collection includes books, diaries, records, magazines, catalogs, manuscripts, photographs, and other items associated with life in the 19th and 20th century.

Connections: This collection includes resources associated with women’s workplace regulations and conditions, home life, commerce, recreation, health, and social issues. Users can explore materials with a keyword search or by format. The collection also features notable people.

Featured Digital Objects: A teacher resources section highlights resources that can easily be connected to the social studies and history curriculum.
To visit the collection, go to http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ww/.

Access to Massive Digital Libraries

If you've ever gone to Google Books and been frustrated by the limited preview available, then you understand concerns regarding information access and digital libraries. Beyond copyright issues, limited access is a concern for other reasons.

Read Weiss, Andrew (2014). Access - Or, Why Can't I Get This? In, Using Massive Digital Libraries : A LITA Guide. Chicago, IL, USA: American Library Association. Also, available as an ebook through IUPUI.

The Real World

“There is a clear need for libraries to move beyond passively providing technology to embrace the changes in scholarly production that emerging technologies have brought. Few researchers see the library as a partner, and most of the researchers in this study seemed to regard the library as a dispensary of goods (i.e., books, articles) rather than a locus for badly needed, real-time professional support” (Jahnke & Ashe, 2012, 16).

In the "real world", libraries have a perception problem. Many people aren't aware that digital libraries even exist. Once they find the website splash page, users may not know how to find what they need. It's not enough to purchase subscriptions to content or building digital collections. Librarians must get to know the needs and information-seeking behaviors of their users. Then, design engaging experiences that meet their needs.

real world

Many libraries are creating featured collections that focus on a set of resources of interest to a particular audience. For instance, the Library of Congress website may be overwhelming to a middle school child. However, the Rosa Parks collection from the Library Congress helps young people explore primary sources documents that bring the Civil Rights Movement alive.

magna cartaDigital Collection Spotlight

is a digital collection from the British Library focusing on the famous 800-year legacy of this document.

: This digital collection contains collection items, themes, articles, people, videos, and teaching resources. Users can explore resources by theme including medieval origins, clauses and content, legacy, and Magna Carta today. The article section provides nearly two dozen articles by leading experts. The videos area includes background information and scholar interviews. The peoples area explores key people related to the Magna Carta. Finally, the teaching resources area features a couple dozen lesson plans.

Connections: Librarians and teachers will find a wide variety of resources appropriate for the K-12 curriculum. The website is easy for students to navigate and use for lessons associated with history, government, and social studies.

Featured Digital Objects:
Magna Carta http://www.bl.uk/collection-items/magna-carta-1215
What Is Magna Carta? http://www.bl.uk/magna-carta/videos/what-is-magna-carta
To visit the collection, go to http://www.bl.uk/magna-carta.


Anderson, Katie Elson & Cvetkovic, Vibiana Bowman (2015). Reinventing Reference: How Libraries Deliver Value in the Age of Google. ALA Editions.

Breeding, Marshall (May 1, 2014). Strengthening engagement with virtual visitors. Computers in Libraries, 34(4), 19-21.

Chow, Anthony (2013). The usability of digital information environments: planning, design, and assessment. In D. Baker and W. Evans (eds.), Chandos Digital Information Review : Trends, Discovery, and People in the Digital Age. Jordon Hill, GBR: Chandos Publishing, 13-37. Available as an ebook through IUPUI.

Fox, Edward A., Yang, Seungwon, Ewers, John, Wildemuth, Barbara, Pomerantz, Jeffrey P., Oh, Sanghee (2011). 1-a (10-c): Digital Library Curriculum Development Module. Collaborative Research: Curriculum Development: Digital Libraries. Available: http://curric.dlib.vt.edu/modDev/modules/DL_1-a_2011-05-11.pdf

Green, Harriett E. & Courtney, Angela (July 2015). Beyond the scanned image: a needs assessment of scholarly users of digital collections. College & Research Libraries, 76(5), 690-707.

Hyman, Jack A., Moser, Mary T., Segala, Laura N. (2014). Electronic reading and digital library technologies: understanding learner expectation and usage intent for mobile learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 62, 35-52.

Jahnke, Lori M. & Asher, Andrew (August 2012). The problem of data: data management and curation practices among university researchers. In Jahnke, L., Asher, A. & Keralis, S.D.C., The Problem of Data. Available online.

Lidwell, William, Holden, Kritina & Butler (2010). Principles of Design. Rockport Publishers.

LiLi, Li (2014). Chandos Professional Series: Scholarly Information Discovery in the Networked Academic Learning Environment. Chandos Publishing. Available through IUPUI ebooks.

Mitchell, Emily, West, Brandon & Johns-Masten, Kathryn (May/June 2015). Revitalizing library services with usability data: testing 1,2,3. Computers in Libraries, 35(5), 11-14.

Nicholas, David (2010). The virtual scholar: the hard and evidential truth. In I. Verheul, A. Tammaro and S. Witt (eds.). Digital Library Futures : User Perspectives and Institutional Strategies, Volume 146. Berlin, DEU: Walter de Gruyter. ProQuest ebrary. Available as an ebook through IUPUI.

OCLC (2014). At a Tipping Point: Education, Learning and Libraries. OCLC. Available online.

Rottingen, Einar (2010). A pianist's use of the digitised version of the Edvard Grieg Collection. In I. Verheul, A. Tammaro and S. Witt (eds.). Digital Library Futures : User Perspectives and Institutional Strategies, Volume 146. Berlin, DEU: Walter de Gruyter. ProQuest ebrary. Available as an ebook through IUPUI.

Singer, Dev & Agosto, Denise (November/December 2013). Reaching senior patrons in the digitized library. Public Libraries, 52(6), 38-42.

Teruggi, Daniel (2010). Who are the users of digital libraries? What do they expect and want? The Europeana experience. In I. Verheul, A. Tammaro and S. Witt (eds.). Digital Library Futures : User Perspectives and Institutional Strategies, Volume 146. Berlin, DEU: Walter de Gruyter. ProQuest ebrary. Available as an ebook through IUPUI.

Witten, Ian H., Bainbridge, David, & Nicholas, David (2003, 2010). How to Build a Digital Library. Morgan Kaufmann: Elsevier. Google Preview Available: https://books.google.com/books?id=HiJNbEy5f70C. Available as an ebook through IUPUI.

Zavalina, O., & Vassilieva, E. V. (2014). Understanding the Information Needs of Large-Scale Digital Library Users. Library Resources & Technical Services, 58(2), 84-99.

Zickuhr, Kathryn, Purcell, Kristen, & Rainie, Lee (March 13, 2014). From Distant Admirers to Library Lovers - and Beyond: A Typology of Public Library Engagement in America. PewInternet.

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