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Digital Library Issues


To read the transcript of this video, go to Transcripts.

Objectives
Address legal, ethical, economic, and social issues and challenges associated with digital libraries.
Describe and give examples of how the copyright law applies to digital libraries.

studentHow do I ensure that all users have access to digital library resources and services?
What steps need to be taken to plan for potential disasters?
How do I protect the privacy of my digital library users
?

This page will explore digital library issues including:

 

readRead!
Read Challenges to Building an Effective Digital Library from the Library of Congress. This address many issues facing those involve with library development.

Accessibility Issues

listen“One role of the library as a community anchor is to provide equitable access to technology and digital content. A comprehensive approach to creating digital inclusion will ensure an equal opportunity for all, regardless of geographic location, socioeconomic status, or any other factor” (ALA, 2015, 10).

The digital divide continues to be a problem in many areas of the United States. Depending on your library type, it's important to consider whether your library users will be able to gain access to your digital library.

Americans without Disabilities Act

School and public libraries are obligated to provide services for all users regardless of their disability. Whether providing audiobooks for visually-impaired library users or captioning video content for deaf or hearing impaired digital collection users, librarians must address the needs of persons with disabilities.

readRead!
Read at least ONE of the following articles.

Capiel, Gerardo (Winter 2014). Born accessible. The Journal of Electronic Publishing, 17(1). Available online. Read the abstract and view the presentation.

Peck, Megan (2011). Making Texas' Moving Image Heritage Accessible. Microform & Digitization Review, 40(3), 122-126.

Walker, Wendy & Keenan, Teressa (2015). Do you hear what I see? Assessing accessibility of Digital Commons and CONTENTdm. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 27(2), 69-87.

Legal Issues and Copyright Issues

“As academic technology and scholarly communication practices continue to evolve,
existing copyright law does not always reflect the new paradigm. In this environment,
academic libraries rely on a set of best practices to guide the use of materials in a manner
permissible under the fair use doctrine guidelines, including those specifically granted to
educators… Rights management is a complex landscape in which to maneuver. Librarians can
advise on best practices and the development of institutional policies” (ACRL, 2015, 19).

Vincent van GoghThe copyright information provided by librarians in regard to their digital collections varies widely.

Your website should contain your Rights Management Policy (RMP). Use Dartmouth College Library's RMP as an example.

It's also important to include copyright information in your digital collections. Go to the Freedom Summer (Wisconsin Historical Society). Read through the description to the "Rights and Permissions" section for an example.

The painting on the right titled Farmhouse in Provence (1888) by Vincent van Gogh is courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington. This is one example of the increasing number of digital collections making their materials available online and open access. They provide guidlines for crediting the works on their Open Access Policy page.

Digital Library Spotlight
The National Gallery of Art provides an Open Access Policy for Images of Works of Art Presumed in the Public Domain. They also provide a note for users including information on how to credit the works. Explore their collection and think about the value of this type of policy and approach for providing access to artwork.

Digital Library Spotlight
The Densho Digital Repository contains "thousands of historic photographs, documents, newspapers, letters and other primary source materials that tell the story of the Japanese American community, from immigration to the WWII incarceration and its aftermath." This project did an excellent job addressing concerns about copyright.

Their About page states:
"We have experienced an increasing interest from our users for access to digitized content. Students and educators are looking for high-quality photos to use in projects and presentations. Researchers and historians want direct, convenient access to digitized documents and papers. Much of the content our users need is not readily available elsewhere or is subject to complicated and often expensive licensing requirements.
The Densho Digital Repository was developed in response to these challenges. Drawing on current standards and practices in the archival community, along with robust open-source technologies, we have built a platform and management processes that can provide for both long-term preservation and user-friendly access to the digital archives. Wherever possible, we have licensed or secured license from third-parties for the majority of materials in the repository to be offered under Creative Commons."


copryightThe bottom of each page contains the following notice:

"The text of this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Where indicated, images and other primary source materials may be subject to use restrictions by their respective rights holders. More information "

The "Using and Citing Content" page contains specific instructions for users wishing to reproduce the works published at the website.

videoWatch!
Skim the video Understanding Copyright from the Public Library Partnerships Project curriculum.

readRead!
Read at least TWO of the following articles:

Hanlon, Ann & Ramirez, Marisa (April 2011). Asking for permission: a survey of copyright workflows for institutional repositories. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 11(2), 683-702.

Library Copyright Alliance (2015). Response to the U.S. Copyright Office’s Notice of Inquiry on Copyright Protection for Certain Visual Works.

Terms and Conditions of Image use for 11 art museum digital collections. In, Kelly, Kristin (June 2013). Images of works of art in museum collections: the experience of open access. Council on Library and Information Resources. Available online.

United States Copyright Office (2015). Orphan Works and Mass Digitization. A Report of the Register of Copyrights. Available online.

von Hielmcrone, Harald (2012). The Digital Library and the Law - Legal Issues Regarding the Acquisition, Preservation and Dissemination of Digital Cultural Heritage. Microform & Digitization Review, 41(3/4), 159-170.

Weiss, Andrew (2014). The Copyright Conundrum - How is this Allowed? In, Using Massive Digital Libraries : A LITA Guide. Chicago, IL, USA: American Library Association. Also, available as an ebook through IUPUI. This article explores copyright issues related to massive digital libraries including key court cases focusing on Google and Hathitrust.

try itTry It!
Explore the Copyright for Digitization Resources and Creative Commons. Think about copyright issues related to both the digital library as a whole as well as individual digital collections.

Mass Digitization & Copyright

In addition to the concerns you're likely to encounter in your own library or when building small collections, there are also larger concerns that may have an impact on your access to information. Mass digitization projects are faced with an array of complex issues.

try itTry It!
Read Help the Copyright Office Understand How to Address Mass Digitization from the DPLA blog. Think about the issues that are facing mass digitization projects that might be different from smaller digital collections.

Ethical Issues

In addition to the legal aspects of copyright, it's also important to explore ethical considerations when building collections.

"Looking at the situation from an ethical, rather than legal perspective sheds light on the fundamental issues. It is unethical to steal: deriving profit by distributing a book for which someone else has rightful claim to copyright is wrong. It is unethical to deprive someone of the fruit of their labor: giving away electronic copies of a book for which someone else had rightful claim to copyright is wrong. It is unethical to pass someone else's work off as your own: making a digital library collection without proper acknowledgment is wrong. It is unethical to willfully misrepresent someone else's point of view: modifying document before including them in the collection is wrong, even if the original authorship is acknowledged" (Witten, Bainbridge, and Nicholas, 2010, 35).

team

Big Data and Data Curation Issues

data“Academic researchers are users of big data, extremely large data sets that are beyond the capability of most software tools to process and analyze. Academic librarians traditionally assess the research needs of academics, but big data poses new challenges. The sheer quantity and rate of accumulation of data require new skills and resources to enable researchers to share, analyze, and reuse it" (ALA, 2015, 6).

Many libraries are becoming involved in projects that involve big data and data curation.

“Increasingly libraries are planning and implementing data management services that support the discovery, access, sharing, archiving, and preservation of research data generated at their institutions” (eSciencePortal, 2015).

Librarians need an understanding of data management planning, research data lifecycles, data curation, data tools, data sharing, and data repositories.

readRead!
Choose ONE of the following articles to read:

Huwe, Terence (May/June 2015). Data administration: an opportunities to collaborate. Computers in Libraries, 35(5), 15-17.

Read Kowalczyk, S. and Shankar, K. (2011). Data sharing in the sciences. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 45: 247–294.

To learn more, explore Bailey, Charles W., Jr. (July 1, 2015). Research Data Curation Bibliography. Houston: Digital Scholarship. Available online.

try itTry It!
Explore the following resources from eSciencePortal to learn more about this emerging area.
Data Management Planning
Research Data Lifecycles
Data Curation
Data Tools
Data Sharing
Data Repositories
Metadata
Reasons to Cite Data

nsidcDigital Collection Spotlight

NATIONAL SNOW & ICE CENTER contains datasets and other scientific information.

Contents: This website contains scientific data focusing on glaciers, ice sheets, ice shelves, permafrost, sea ice, soil moisture, and snow. In addition to data sets, the resource also includes photo collections, maps, and other interesting resources.

Connections: Library users interested in climate science will find the data useful. The data sets in this collections are useful for teaching science concepts along with data literacy. Involve students in examining changes over time and ask them to draw conclusions.

Featured Digital Objects:
Photo Collection - https://goo.gl/4ItvCm
Scientists in the Field - https://goo.gl/YxvwU8
About the Cryosphere - https://goo.gl/bw3fVy
To visit the collection, https://nsidc.org/.

Disaster Planning Issues

Natural disasters can easily destroy both physical and digital data. Be sure your library is ready for disaster. From electrical storms that shut down servers and fry hard drives to floods that corrupt data and destroy preserved archives, disasters can cause a variety of problems for digital collections.

Libraries need a disaster plan that covers both physical collections as well as digital collections. While some libraries build in digital resources, others forget about this important aspect of their collections. The Library of Congress' Emergency Preparedness, Response & Recovery page is a great place to go for ideas.

Examples of Library Disaster Plans

readRead!
Read Frank, R. D. and Yakel, E. (2013). Disaster planning for digital repositories. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50: 1–10.


Skim the COSTEP: Coordinated Statewide Emergency Preparedness plan for cultural resources. It contains lots of great ideas related to archives. Also, skim their Protection for Loss pages.

try itTry It!
Explore the library disaster plans above seeking evidence of planning for accessing and recovering digital assets.

Need more ideas? Go to ALA's Disaster Response: A Selected Bibliography page.

Privacy Issues

Does the library keep track of the ebooks I've read?
Does the library know what topics I've been searching in electronic databases?
Can the library be asked to turn of ereading records?

These and other questions related to privacy may not seem like a big deal. However, as more tools for tracking library users become available, personal privacy will become an increasing concern.

Digital librarians have a need to collect information about digital library use to improve services and show evidence of the impact of new technologies. However at the same time, they also need to respect the desires of library users to keep information private.

The American Library Association maintains a Privacy Toolkit to handle issues related to privacy and libraries. ALA's Intellectural Freedom Manual contains a section related to privacy. The Choose Privacy Week website contains lots of useful information too.

readRead!
Read both of these articles about privacy.

Brantley, Peter (January 2, 2015). Books and browsers: privacy for digital library patrons. Publisher's Weekly.

Ozer, Nicole (Winter 2014). Digital books: a new chapter for reader privacy. The Journal of Electronic Publishing. Available online. Download the PowerPoint slides. The narration is in the notes area.

privacy

A growing number of digital libraries are creating policies related to privacy. ALA's website contain resources for Developing a Library Privacy Policy.

Digital Library Spotlight
The California Digital Library has designed a privacy policy that specifically addresses the needs of a digital library. Read it at California Digital Library Privacy Policy.

cdl

Explore examples of general library privacy policies. In some cases, they have special sections related to digital libraries and collections.

The NISO has been tasked with developing a "Consensus Framework to Support Patron Privacy in Digital Library and Information Systems". Although the project is just getting started, it's like to have an impact on digital libraries of all types.

try itTry It!
Explore the preliminary activities related to the Consensus Framework to Support Patron Privacy in Digital Library and Information Systems. What are your thoughts and concerns about this important issue?

Security Issues

From professional hackers invading university servers to authorizing users, security is a growing issue for digital librarians.

readRead!
Read ElSherbiny, Noha (2014). Security. In E. Fox, R. Torres, Digital Library Technologies: Complex Objects, Annotation, Ontologies, Classification, Extraction, and Security. Synthesis Lectures on Information Concepts, Retrieval, and Services, 131-154. Morgan & Claypool Publishers. Available as an ebook through IUPUI.

try itTry It!
Read the Northeast Document Conservation Center's section on security issues at their website titled Collections Security: Planning and Prevention for Libraries and Archives.
Build your own security plan.

Collaboration

Whether working at a small or large institution, there are often territorial issues when it comes to building a digital collection. In some cases, a variety of different agencies may all be interested in creating similar projects. The key to success is collaboration. Rather than competing, use the expertise and resources of each partner.

readRead!
Read Laster, Shari (Spring 2012). Crossing institutional boundaries to build a digital collection. DTTP: Documents to the People.

Sustainability Issues

sustainability

Will our ebooks disappear if we don't renew our subscription?
How do we provide support for a growing user base?
How do we gain funding to support our digital library?

These are just a few of the questions related to sustainability that will continue to arise as more and more libraries build a digital presence.

readRead!
Read Chowdhury, Gobinda (2014). Sustainability of digital libraries: a conceptual model and a research framework. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 14, 181-195.

Resources

ACRL (March 2015). Environmental Scan 2015. Available online.

ALA (April 2015). The State of America’s Libraries: A Report from the American Library Association 2015. American Libraries. Special Issue.

Capiel, Gerardo (Winter 2014). Born accessible. The Journal of Electronic Publishing, 17(1). Available online.

Chowdhury, Gobinda (2014). Sustainability of digital libraries: a conceptual model and a research framework. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 14, 181-195.

ElSherbiny, Noha (2014). Security. In E. Fox, R. Torres, Digital Library Technologies: Complex Objects, Annotation, Ontologies, Classification, Extraction, and Security. Synthesis Lectures on Information Concepts, Retrieval, and Services, 131-154. Morgan & Claypool Publishers. Available as an ebook through IUPUI.

Hales, Alma & Attwell, Bernadette (2016). The No-Nonsense Guide to Copyright in All Media. Facet Publishing, UK.

Kelly, Kristin (June 2013). Images of works of art in museum collections: the experience of open access. Council on Library and Information Resources. Available online.

Library Copyright Alliance (2015). Response to the U.S. Copyright Office’s Notice of Inquiry on Copyright Protection for Certain Visual Works.

Ozer, Nicole (Winter 2014). Digital books: a new chapter for reader privacy. The Journal of Electronic Publishing. Available online.

United States Copyright Office (2015). Orphan Works and Mass Digitization. A Report of the Register of Copyrights. Available online.

Walker, Wendy & Keenan, Teressa (2015). Do you hear what I see? Assessing accessibility of Digital Commons and CONTENTdm. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 27(2), 69-87.

Witten, Ian H., Bainbridge, David, & Nicholas David (2003, 2010). How to Build a Digital Library. Morgan Kaufmann: Elsevier. Google Preview Available: https://books.google.com/books?id=HiJNbEy5f70C


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