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Contemporary Libraries: 1910s

First School Teacher Wikimedia Commons PDLet's examine immigration and segregation issues, ship libraries, the World War I era, cultural movements of East Asia, issues of colonialism and remote areas.

The time period from the late 1800s through the 1920s was known as the Progressive Era. Social activism and political reform flourished.

The photo on the right shows Miss Mary Boyer reading to her students at the Upper Arlington school in Ohio around 1917.

Wiegand notes that the

"reforming spirit of the Progressive era had identified the 'problem' groups in American society - the immigrants, the urban indigent, and criminal and insane, the remove rural dweller, the impressionable child, to name but a few - and the historical record shows that ALA had sponsored some activity or group which sought to address the socialization needs of each." (Wiegand, 1986, 235)

At the Buenos Aires Convention of 1910, the United States and most Latin American countries entered into a copyright treaty recognizing mutual recognition of copyright.

United States Immigration and Libraries

The level of immigration grew steadily from the late 1800s into the early 1900s.

Beginning in the late 1800s, public librarians saw the assimilation of immigrants as an important role for the public library. In the 1900s and 1910s, immigration patterns began to shift from the United Kingdom and Germany toward Russia, Poland, Greece, Italy, and Asia. These patterns shifted again in the 21st century with many immigrants from places like India, Mexico, and China.

According to Plummer (1999), those studying library history are divided into two camps regarding the motivations of libraries toward immigrants. Some view librarians as motivated by the ideals of public education and the egalitarian principles, while others focus on the ideals of social control by an intellectual elite.

Regardless of their motives, most approaches during this time focused on "Americanization" of new immigrants. In others words, teaching English, educating patrons in American culture, promoting American citizenship, and assisting new immigrants in making good decisions regarding the political process. Library outreach programs were used to foster reading and education as well as basic life skills including personal hygiene and finances. The approach was paternalistic viewing new immigrants like "lost souls" needing basic services.

Webster: Interior views, Bohem... Digital ID: 101008. New York Public Library

Librarians were divided on whether foreign language materials should be provided. Many thought these materials would reinforce "old world" languages and be detrimental to learning English. Others felt that foreign language materials would promote library use. The photo above right shows a group of children listening to a library assistant during Bohemian story hour. Parents were encouraged to bring their children to programs in their native language in hopes that they would be interested in learning English.

The ALA Committee on Work with Foreign Born (CWFB) was established in 1917. A number of key library leaders served on this committee including Jane Maud Campbell, John Foster Carr, Eleanor (Edwards) Ledbetter, and Edna Phillips. This committee became part of the Committee on Intercultural Action in 1948.

Ultimately, views of librarians evolved toward "a greater commitment to access as needs of immigrants, working people and children began to receive focus and attention." (McCook, 2002, 8)

Dig DeeperDip Deeper
Read Pozzi, Ellen M. (2013). Italian neighborhoods and the Newark Free Public Library, 1900-1920. In, C. Pawley & L.S. Robbins, Print Culture History in Modern America: Libraries and the Reading Public in Twentieth Century America. University of Wisconsin, 97-110.

Readers in the Ellis Island Ho... Digital ID: 94678. New York Public LibraryEllis Island Immigrant Hospital Library
New York City, New York, USA

The Ellis Island Hospital Library was run by the Red Cross from 1902 through 1930.

The photo on the left shows immigrants reading at the Ellis Island Hospital Library.

Designed specifically for the immigrant population, it served the needs of many children who remained in the hospital for extended periods of time.

In addition to the library, a school was provided that focused on personal hygiene, basic education, and American culture.

The photo below shows a corner of the library.

A corner of the Ellis Island l... Digital ID: 94675. New York Public Library

New York Public Library
New York City, New York, USA

Work with schools : a libraria... Digital ID: 465270. New York Public LibraryIn New York, the foreign-born population increased by 41 percent in 1910. The New York Public Library opened in 1911.

The photo on the right shows a librarian's assistant telling a story to a group of Russian children in their native language.

According to the Jean Harripersaud from the Bronx Library Center, the librarians of the New York Public Library

"upheld the philosophy that the library should be accessible to all and provide library resources for all peoples of the community, and decided to stock a foreign language collection of over 100,000 books representing over twenty-five different languages to meet the reading interests of immigrants in the society. This effort was much criticized by the press and even others in the profession. This huge influx of immigrants was threatening the homogenous landscape of the society. New York was comprised primarily of White Anglo-Saxon Protestants and there was a fear of different and unfamiliar cultures and peoples. To deal with this perceived threat social scientists of the day prescribed an assimilation theory where in practice the new immigrant had to depart from his/her culture, learn English and adapt American ways and customs. In other words, become Americanized and lose his/her ethnic identity.

Librarians, way ahead of social scientists of the time, had already seen assimilation or Americanization as somewhat chauvinistic and embraced the idea that in a democracy the cultures of its resident groups enrich the society and should be preserved. They did want them to learn American ways but they aimed for what we know today as cultural pluralism preferring the 'salad bowl' to the 'melting pot' concept." (Harripersaud, 2010)

Posters, Hungarian : English c... Digital ID: 434264. New York Public LibraryAccording to Dain (2000, 67), a library spokesperson stated, “it is cruel to deny reading matter to people too old or too exhausted by their labor to learn English; besides the right book in any language would introduce them to American life and ideals.”

The photo on the right shows a poster written in Hungarian advertising English classes at Tompkins Square in 1920.

 

 

Segregation and Libraries

Tuskegee Institute Library, PDMigration within the country was also an issue during this time period. Rural African Americans from the South were migrating north to cities like St. Louis and Detroit. However the larger issue focused on library access for African Americans regardless of their location.

In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruling Plessy v. Ferguson established the "separate by equal" law legalizing segregation.

The photo on the right shows the Carnegie Library at the Tuskegee Institute.

Public libraries in the South had been segregated throughout history. For instance, public library branches for blacks were established in Birmingham Alabama in 1918 and in Mobile Alabama in 1931. Although often housed in substandard buildings, many libraries existed in African American communities. White southerns supported segregated libraries as a non-threathening way to support social improvement for black members of the community.

The photo below shows Greenwood Negro Library assistants who were part of the Leflore County Mississippi Library Project in 1936. (Courtesy Franklin D Roosevelt Presidental Library).

Greenwood Negro Library Assistants, FDR Presidental Library, PD

Many libraries specifically established for the black population emerged in the first couple decades of the 20th century including the Eighth Street Colored School Library in Henderson Kentucky, the Brevard Street Library for Negros in Charlotte North Carolina, and the Western Colored Branch Library of the Louisville Free Public Library system.

In the North, some libraries were open to all races. For instance, the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore provided services for users of all areas beginning in 1886. The Boston Public Library is another example.

In 1921, the American Library Association Work with Negros Round Table established.

The West Virginia Supreme Court ruled in 1928 that Charleston public libraries can't exclude black patrons because as taxpayers they are ensured access to library service.

A number of philanthropists funded libraries regardless of race. For instance, Julius Rosenwald funded 13 libraries in Southern states.

Houston Colored Library
Houston, Texas

Andrew Carnegie was aware of the issue of library access in the African American community and provided funding for separate libraries in African American communities. Wall (2008) explained that Carnegie was interested in “in opening doors for another group of descendants of immigrants—those who had not come to America voluntarily, and who had found here only slavery, degradation, and the cruelest forms of man’s inhumanity to man.”

The photo below shows the Houston Colored Library.

Houston Colored Library

According to Malone (1999),

"Denied the use of the Houston Lyceum and Carnegie Library, African American leaders organized their own public library in a high school in 1909. Working through native Houstonian Emmett J. Scott and his boss Booker T. Washington, local black Houstonians secured a construction grant from the Carnegie Corporation. By the time the Colored Carnegie Library building was completed in 1913, they had negotiated with the City of Houston for the right of an all-black board of trustees to govern the library".

Dig DeeperDip Deeper
Read Malone, Cheryl Knott (Spring 1999). Autonomy and accommodation: Houston's Colored Carnegie Library, 1907-1922. Libraries & Culture, 34(2).

 

Tuskegee Institute Library
Tuskegee, Alabama

Tuskegee Institute Library, LOC, PDSegregation strengthened all-black institutions such as the Tuskegee Institute.

It provided an opportunity for autonomous black leadership.

The Tuskegee Institute was established in 1881.

The Carnegie Library at the Tuskegee Institute was established in 1906. The photo on the left shows the library building.

The photo below shows the interior of a reading room in the library at the Tuskegee Institute in the early 1900s.

Tuskegee Institute

Ship Libraries

Steamship, PDSteamships became a common way to cross the ocean in the late 1800s. Because of the long voyage, libraries were used to entertain guests.

The Cunard Line became known for their libraries.

Beginning in the late 1800s, they launched steamships with reading rooms and libraries like the one shown on the right found on the Campania and Lucania.

The Cunard company continues to produce luxury cruiseships containing high-end libraries.

The Queen Mary 2 contains more than 8000 books and is currently the largest library at sea. They provide a range of programming include a book club.

Although libraries have always been a part of high-end cruise-ships, during the 1990s-2000s cruise-ship libraries boomed in the less expensive ships.

Libraries can now be found on many cruise ships including the Monticello Library and Iliad Library on Carnival Cruise Lines Freedom and Valor ships. Royal Caribbean, Crystal Cruises, Celebrity, and HollandAmerica lines also have libraries available.

Go to the Queen Mary 2 website for a virtual field trip of the library (choose LEISURE and THE LIBRARY).

RMS Titanic
Atlantic Ocean

Mr. Thomas Kelland was the library steward aboard the Titanic. As part of the victualling crew, he would have been involved in evacuating passengers. Kelland died in the Titanic disaster. Thomas claimed to be 21, but historical records indicate that he was probably only 18 years old. Prior to the Titanic position, he had also been steward on the Adriatic and Olympic ships.

The Titanic had two libraries. They were situated in the first and second class lounges. Since Kelland was the only library steward on the ship, he probably worked in both locations.

Lawrence Beesley wrote about his experience in the library just prior to the disaster.

Beesley also described the library itself,

“The library was crowded that afternoon, owing to the cold on deck: but through the windows we could see the clear sky with the brilliant sunlight that seemed to augur a fine night and a clear to-morrow, and the prospect of landing in two days, with calm weather all the way to New York, was a matter of general satisfaction among us all.  I can look back and see every detail of the library that afternoon—the beautifully furnished room, with lounges, armchairs, and small writing-or card tables scattered about, writing-bureaus around the walls of the room, and the library in glass-encased shelves flanking one side—the whole finished in mahogany relieved with white fluted wooden columns that supported the deck above.”  (p. 40-41)

Titanic Library

Many passengers spent time in the library reading and writing post cards. Beesley wrote,

"(it was) generally too cold to sit on deck to read or write, so that many of us spent a good part of the time in the library, reading and writing. I wrote a large number of letters and posted them day by day in the box outside the library door: possibly they are there yet." (p. 31)

Titanic LibrarySome people used the library map, Beesley wrote,

"Returning to the library, I stopped for a moment to read again the day's run and observe our position on the chart." (p. 39)

The photo on the right comes from the Southhampton website.

He described the library steward,

"Looking over this room, with his back to the library shelves, is the library steward, thin, stooping, sad-faced, and generally with nothing to do but serve out books; but this afternoon he is busier than I have ever seen him, serving out baggage declaration-forms for passengers to fill in." (p. 44)

The library once again played a role in the rescue of passengers. Beesley noted that aboard the Carpathia, people slept on the floor of the library.

For an interesting bit of trivia, watch the movie SOS Titanic. Beesley is shown in the library of the Titanic.

SOS Titanic Screen shot

World War I Era

The American Library Association established the Library War Service during World War I. This project began with the creation of the Committee on Mobilization and War Service Plans in 1917. The committee was asked by the U.S. War Department to provide library services to soldiers and sailors around the world. The project was directed by Herbert Putnam and later Carl H. Milam.

The photo below shows U.S. soldiers getting library books from a booktruck at Kelly Field Library.

books from truck, LOC, PD

The photo below from War Service of the American Library Association (1918) shows a corner of the ALA War Service Headquarters.

War Service, PD 1918 ALA

Nearly 1200 library workers served in thirty-six camp libraries distributing as many as 10 million books and magazines to over 500 different location.

"For this work every library in the land is to be a collection center, not only to gather material, but to take the lead in presenting this appeal and in representing this work throughout the country, and especially to correlate and unify at the library all similar efforts. Every library should give the widest publicity to this campaign of book collection, through the press, through slips put in books circulated, through the churches, the movies, and through other agencies cooperating in the same work...

Men are needed to volunteer for camp library service. The A.L.A. has undertaken to furnish without charge sufficient personnel for this work during the duration of military training. Some have already volunteered. Many others are necessary. Each librarian can help to enlarge the honor roll." (Wyer, 1917)

The Library War Service culminated in the creation of library departments in the Army, Navy, and Veteran's Bureau.

All librarian were encouraged to participate. The notice below appeared in War Service Library Week in July 1917.

Notice from War Service Library Week 1917

Carl. H. Milam (1884-1963)
United States

An influential librarian, Carl Milam held positions at the American Library Association for almost 30 years. His library career included positions at Purdue University, the Indiana Public Library Commission, and Birmingham Public Library.

Milam became director of the Library War Service project during World War I. Camp libraries were established overseas to support the troops.

From the 1920s to 1940s Milam served as ALA executive secretary. During World War II while working at ALA he developed plans for employing librarians after the war. Finally, he was named the Director of the Division of Library Services at the United National Library.

World War I Camp Libraries

The book War Service of the American Library Association by Theodore Wesley Koch published in 1918 provides a wonderful overview of the services and resources available in the camp libraries. The photos below come from this book.

The photo below shows a typical camp library, Camp Sheridan Free Library.

War Service, 1918, PD

The photo below shows the interior of Camp Sheridan Library.

War Service, ALA, 1918, PD

The photo below shows people reading magazines, newspaper, and books in the camp library.

War Service, ALA, PD 1918

The photo below shows a branch library at Camp Kearney.

War Service, PD, 1918

Skim War Service of the American Library Association by Theodore Wesley Koch (1918).

Skim Books in Camp, Trench, and Hospital by Theodore Wesley Koch (1917).

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Daniels, Caroline (2008). The feminine touch has not been wanting: women librarians at Camp Zachary Taylor, 1917-1919. Libraries & the Cultural Record, 43(3), 286-307.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Screen, J.E.O. (2010). From Helsinki to Irkutsk: military libraries in Finland, 1812-1918. Library & Information History, 26(2), 139-151.

American Library in Paris
Paris, France

Established in 1920, the library was established by the American Library Association to support U.S. troops stationed in France during World War I. According to the library website, "the charter promised to bring the best of American literature and culture, and library science, to readers in France." The goal was for the library to become a memorial to the American Expeditionary Force, a center for information about America, and supplement the limited supply of American books.

The photo below shows Dorothy Reeder, librarian of the American Library in Paris in 1936 as she prepares to move to the new library location in Paris. Learn more about the American Library in Paris at the Library History Buff blog.

American Library in Paris, Chicago Tribune, 1936, PD.

The library grew to become the largest English-language lending library on the European continent. Ultimately, it became a permanent memorial to the library work done during the war and is currently a private, non-profit organization. The library is open to everyone.

Learn more at the American Library in Paris website.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Maack, Mary Niles (Winter 2007). "I cannot get along without the books I find here": The American Library in Paris during the War, Occupation, and Liberation, 1939-1945, Library Trends, 55(3), 490-512.

Louvain Bookplate PD

Catholic University of Louvain Library
Louvain, Belgium

The Catholic University of Louvain was only one of many libraries destroyed during World War 1. Established in 1425, the library contained a priceless collection of more than 250,000 volumes when it was destroyed by fire in 1914. Many contend that the library was intentionally burned by German occupation forces to quell Belgian resistance.

According to Philip Metzger, groups from around the world assembled contributions for the reconstructed library. The largest contributors to the restoration were Germans. The bookplate contains a seal surrounded by flames representing the library's destruction.

The library was destroyed again during German occupation in May 1940.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Black, Alistair (Winter 2007). Arsenals of scientific and technical information: public technical libraries in Britain during and immediately after World War I. Library Trends, 55(3), 474-489.

Censorship

While no American libraries were destroyed during World War I, censorship of library content became an issue in the United States. According to Julia Skinner (2013, 151),

"early in 1918, Herbert Metcalf, secretary of the Iowa Council of National Defense, sent a request to public and academic libraries requesting that staff scour their shelves and remove materials sympathetic to the German war effort."

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Skinner, Julia (2013). Censorship in the heartland: Eastern Iowa libraries during World War I. In, C. Pawley & L.S. Robbins, Print Culture History in Modern America: Libraries and the Reading Public in Twentieth Century America. University of Wisconsin, 151-167.

 

Cultural Movements of East Asia

During the late 19th and early 20th century cultural movements lead to new libraries in East Asia.

According to Priscilla Yu (2008, 65), "the beginnings of modern librarianship in East Asia date back to the nineteenth century. As Western European, Russian, Japanese, and American cultural influences were introduced, new institutions, values, and techniques were gradually instituted."

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Yu, Priscilla C. (2008). History of modern librarianship in East Asia. Library History, 24(1), 64-77.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Liao, Jing (2008). The new culture movement and the breakthrough in Chinese academic library reform. Library History, 24(1), 37-47.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Liao, Jing (2009). Chinese-American Alliances: American professionalization and the rise of the modern Chinese library system in the 1920s and 1930s. Library & Information History, 25(1), 20-32.

Colonialism

Colonialism related to the establishment of colonies in a territory by people from another area. From the 16th through the 20th centuries, colonies were established in Asia, Africa, and the Americas by several European powers. Osterhammel (2005, 16) states that:

"Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous (or forcibly imported) majority and a minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers in pursuit of interests that are often defined in a distant metropolis. Rejecting cultural compromises with the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to rule."

Africa

Map of Africa wikimedia commons, pdPrior to the 20th century, most African countries relied on oral traditions and apprenticeships as a way to convey information. However during what is referred to as the "Scramble for Africa" countries like Britain, Portugal, and France colonized areas bringing western values regarding information and education.

Click the map for an up-close view of Africa in 1910.

According to Cram (2004), "librarians have a conviction that we are in a helping profession, a profession which empowers people to grow and learn. But libraries and librarianship have been used for less worthy purposes, one of which is as a tool of colonialism."

The introduction of libraries into Africa provided access to information in areas such as agriculture, geology, chemistry, medicine, and other areas of reseach needed to exploit natural resources of the individual countries for the colonial powers (Amadi, 1981).

The introduction of formal education dramatically altered the traditional African cultures.

"The book, reading, libraries, and formal education were introduced into Africa by the coloniser for reasons which can hardly be called legitimate - as a tool for Christianising the heathens and teaching them the way to salvation; as a means for educating the target people in order to achieve the social, political, and economic objectives of the colony; and to acculturate the "natives" into European ways.

Both libraries and educational institutions, seen against this background, became weapons for the entrenchment and institutionalisation of the Western tradition. The dissemination of African culture, where this happened at all, became quite incidental and marginal to the primary intention of utilising these so-called "democratic" institutions as laboratories for the brainwashing of Africans.

A true African library would be one into which Africans and others could walk in order to experience the realities of the African world view."

Netherlands East Indies

The Netherlands East Indies were first established by the Dutch East India Company in 1800. One of the most valuable colonies in the empire, it dealt in spice and cash crop trade.

Between 1918 and 1926, 2500 public libraries were established by the government. Fitzpatrick (2008, 270) notes that "though popular with newly literate local people, the material in the libraries was designed to inculcate "Western" values and further the colonial situation."

The photo below from 1922 shows th "Bestuur Park Library 1922" or "Bestuur Taman Pustaka 1922".

Besturr Taman Pustaka, 1922 or Bestuur Park Library 1922, PD

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth B. (2008). The public library as instrument of colonialism: the case of the Netherlands East Indies. Libraries & the Cultural Record, 43(3), 270-285.

Remote Areas

Father William Duncan in front of town library, LOC, PDEven in remote areas like Alaska, libraries were being established.

The photo on the right shows Father William Duncan, a missionary, in front of the town library in Metlakatia Alaska in the early 1900s.

Resources

Amadi, Adolphe O. (1981). African libraries: Western tradition and colonial brainwashing. Scarecrow Press.

Beesley, Lawrence (1912). The Loss of the S.S. Titanic. Available: http://books.google.com/books?id=5Eh_AAAAMAAJ

Butler, Pierce (1933). Introduction to Library Science. University of Chicago Press. Available: http://archive.org/stream/introductiontoli011501mbp

Cram, Jennifer (2004). Colonialism and Libraries in Third World Africa. Australian Library Journal, 42(1), 1-9). Available: http://www.alia.org.au/~jcram/african_libraries.html

Dain, Phyllis (2000). The New York Public Library: A Universe of Knowledge. New York Public Library.

Garrison, Dee (1979). Apostles of Culture: The Public Librarian and American Society, 1876-1920. Free Press.

Graham, Patterson Toby (2002). A Right to Read: Segregation and Civil Rights in Alabama's Public Libraries. University of Alabama Press.

Harris, Michael H. (1972). The Purpose of the American Public Library in Historical Perspective: Revisionist Interpretation. ERIC. Available: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED071668.pdf

Harripersaud, Jean (2010). A Trailblazer in Immigrant Services: The New York Public Library. Available: http://www.nypl.org/blog/2010/04/14/trailblazer-immigrant-services-nypl

Koch, Theodore & Putnam, Herbert (1918). War Service of the American Library Association. ALA War Service. Available: http://archive.org/stream/servicewarofamer00kochrich

Koch, Theodore (1917). Books in Camp, Trench, and Hospital. Reprinted from Library Journal. Available: http://archive.org/stream/booksincamptrenc00kochrich

Learned, William S. (1924). The American Public Library and the Diffusion of Knowledge. Harcourt. Available: http://archive.org/stream/americanpublicli007473mbp

Maack, Mary Niles (Winter 2007). "I cannot get along without the books I find here": The American Library in Paris during the War, Occupation, and Liberation, 1939-1945, Library Trends, 55(3), 490-512.

Malone, Cheryl Knott (Spring 1999). Autonomy and accommodation: Houston's Colored Carnegie Library, 1907-1922. Libraries & Culture, 34(2). Available: http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/~landc/fulltext/LandC_34_2_Malone.pdf

McCook, Kathleen de la Pena (2002). Rocks in the Whirlpool: Equity of Access and the American Library Association. Available: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED462981.pdf

Metzger, Philip A. Catholic University of Louvain. Available: http://sentra.ischool.utexas.edu/~lcr/archive/bookplates/15_3_Louvain.htm

Osterhammel, Jürgen (2005). Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview. Shelley Frisch (trans. ). Markus Weiner Publishers. Available: http://books.google.com/?id=CMfksrnWaUkC&pg=PA16#v=onepage

Plumbe, Wilfred J. (1987). Tropical librarianship. Scarecrow Press.

Plummer, Alston Jones Jr. (1999). Libraries, Immigrants, and the American Experience. Greenwood Press.

Seldon, Lynn (2001). Literacy on the high seas: cruise-ship libraries flourish. American Libraries, 32(7), 52-54.

Wall, Joseph Frazier (2008). Andrew Carnegie. Paw Prints.

War Service Library Week (July, 1917). Available: http://archive.org/stream/warservicelibrar00unse

Ward, Gilbert O. (1917). The Practical Use of Books and Libraries: An Elementary Manual. Boston Book Co. Available: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:2990923?n=10

Watson, P.D. (1994). Founding Mothers: The contribution of women's organizations to public library development in the United States. The Library Quarterly, 64(3), pp. 233-269.

Wiegand, Wayne A. (1986). The Politics of an Emerging Profession: The American Library Association, 1876-1917. Greenwood Press.

Why Do We Need A Public Library (1902). American Library Association. Available: http://books.google.com/books?id=PPe6AAAAIAAJ

Why Do We Need A Public Library (1910). American Library Association. Available: http://archive.org/stream/whydoweneedpubl00hadl

Wyer, J.I. (August, 1917) What can I do to help?: a program for the immediate library war service. War Library Bulletin, 1(1).


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