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Modern Libraries: 1875-1899 CE

Students reading in Library of Congress 1890s http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a07924/Let's examine changes in the library profession, medical libraries, intellectual freedom, and library management.

After the Civil War, an educational reform movement spread across the United States.

This movement coincided with the development of the library movement.

The photo on the right shows Herbert Putnam watching students in the Reading Room at the Library of Congress around 1899.

In the mid- to late 19th century, librarians began holding meetings and conventions to discuss issues of professional interest.

Specialty areas within the field of librarianship began to emerge. Finally, the first schools for training librarians were established.

Library Associations

Charles Jewett, PDThe first Librarian's Convention was held in New York City in 1853. The 80 men attending the conference discussed issues such as communication, library management, cataloging, and collection development. Charles Jewett (shown right) from the Smithsonian Institution was elected president and Seth Hastings Grant from the New York Merchentile Library was elected secretary.

During the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, 103 librarians, 90 men, and 23 women responded to a call for a Convention of Librarians. The American Library Association was formed on October 6, 1876. The goal was "to enable librarians to do their present work more easily and at less expense." (American Library Association).

As a result of the first International Conference of Librarians, the Library Association of the United Kingdom (LAUK) was founded in 1877. In 2002, the LAUK merged with Institute of Information Scientists to form the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP). Many other professional organizations followed into the 20th century such as the Libraries Association of New Zealand founded in 1910, Mexican Association of Librarians founded in 1924, and the Australian Library and Information Association formed in 1937.

Explore a list of library association websites at Wikipedia.

State Libraries

State libraries were established by the governments of individual states to serve as the repository of information for the particular state.

Many state libraries were created in the mid-19th century. By the turn of the 20th century, they were transforming.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Lear, Bernadette (2013). A state library transformed: Pennsylvania, 1878-1921. Information & Culture, 48(1), 26-29.

Medical Librarianship

Medical librarianship was one of a number of specialty areas to emerge during the 19th century.

The Association of Medical Libraries (later known as the Medical Library Association) was founded in 1898 by four librarians and four physicians.

The owner of a bookstore and medical doctor, George Gould's efforts lead to the founding of the Association of Medical Libraries. Gould became the first president and stated "every small city of America shall have a public medical library to which the worker within a hundred miles can come and learn" (1898, 16).

According to Connor (2000, 8), "the original intent of the association was to share duplicate medical literature among member libraries and to augment their collections with donations of current journals and books. Within a few years, this purpose would change as doctors drawn to the association tended to be bookish and humanistic in outlook."

A number of key individuals linked the medical and library professions.

Sir William Osler (1849-1919)
Johns Hopkins Hospital

William Osler Wikimedia Commons PDA Canadian physician, Osler was one of the founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital. Osler felt that doctors should study both patients and books together. He sought to integrate current medical resources with classical medical works. He established the medical residency as a way for doctors to continue their studies while working with patients. Osler was known to say "he who studies medicine without books sails an uncharted sea, but he who studies medicine without patients does not go to sea at all."

The photo on the right shows William Osler in the 1880s.

As a collector of books, he served on library committees at most of the universities where he worked. He was involved in the founding of the Medical Library Association in North America and also served as the only president of the Medical Library Association of Great Britain and Ireland.

Billings PDJohn Shaw Billings (1838-1913)
New York

Combining his skills as a librarian and surgeon, John Shaw Billings (1838-1913) laid the foundations for medical librarianship. In addition, he was the first director of the New York Public Library.

Surgeon General Joseph Lovell established the Library of the Surgeon General's Office in 1836. The first library catalogue was made in 1840.

Billings (image on left) became the head of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office in Washington D.C.. He developed the Army Medical Museum and Library that later became the core collection of the National Library of Medicine.

Billing's work in cataloging and indexing lead to his foundational work Index Medicus in 1879 when he was head of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office. The library later became the United States National Library of Medicine which continues to publish the Index today.

Some librarians felt that medical libraries should only house new works. However, Billings argued that medical libraries should have a wide range of resources including the history and literature of medicine as well as new works. He felt that it was important to learn from the mistakes made in the past. He felt that libraries were laboratories.

The Boston Medical Library
Boston, Massachusetts, US

The Boston Medical Library was designed as a place of work for medical professionals. It was intended to be a reference library with materials always available. It quickly gained a following of researchers.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read McNally, Peter F. Brown, Glenn, & Savard, Nicolas (2007). Sir William Osler, the Bibliotheca Osleriana and the creation of a history of medicine collection. Library History, 23(2), 97-114.

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Read Stewart, J. Brenton (2015). ‘To support the southern medical public’: The Medical College of Georgia as a southern information agency, 1828-1861. Information & Culture, 50(4), 554-577.

Prison Libraries

Another category of specialty library to emerge was the prison library. Prison libraries have existed in America since the 17th century. The first library was built in Nantucket Massachusetts in 1676. In 1790, the Philadelphia Prison Society provided library services to the Walnut Street Jail.

In the 18-19th centuries, many prison libraries were run by the clergy to increase devotion and reduce crime.

State prison libraries were established in the early to mid 1800s containing mostly religious and temperance materials. According to Engelbarts (1972), "it is probably that practically all of the books in these libraries were theological in nature and were designed to compel prisoners to comtemplate the eternal sufferings to which they would be subjected if they did not repent."

During the Prison Reform Movement of the 1870s, the Prison Congress called for rehabilitation rather than retribution. The library became an important part of the movement to educate prisoners in some areas. However the idea didn't catch on everywhere despite the support of associations like ALA.

Magazine Card Manual for Institution Libraries 1916 PDThe American Library Association founded a Committee on Libraries in Federal Prisons in 1911 and published Manual for Institution Libraries by Carrie Scott in 1916. The image on the right shows a sample request card for magazines in a prison library.

Scott (1916, 1) states,

"the library in a state institution is confronted by a threefold problem. It is concerned with getting suitable books, finding and equipping a place to keep them, and carrying on the library so as to make it effective."

Prison libraries were expanded during the Depression focusing on wholesome recreation and mental health. Prison administrators hoped that books would calm the inmates.

In 1929 the Federal Prison Library System was established in the new division of Welfare and Education in the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

"intelligent use of a good library can also do much to counteract the tiresome formality of studying subjects that one should have covered years before and to supplement the advanced instruction that some prisoners desire." (Handbook of American Prisons and Reformatories, 1929, xxx)

The 1970s was another time of growth. A 1977 court decision required that prisoner have access to a people trained in law and law libraries. However a 1996 decision limited the requirement for library collections.

In 1982, the ALA Council adopted the Prisoners Library Bill of Rights. The ALA Intellectual Freedom Manual "asserts a compelling public interest in the preservation of intellectual freedom for individuals of any age held in jails, prisons, detention facilities, juvenile facilities, immigration facilities, prison work camps and segregated units within any facility."

Kentucky State Reformatory Library
Kentucky, USA

Established in 1802, the Kentucky State Reformatory Library was the first state prison library containing primarily religious books supervised by the chaplain.

San Quentin Prison Library
San Quentin, California, USA

In 1852, the San Quentin Prison Library was established. A prison ship was anchored off Point San Quentin. Prisoners built the prison on shore and lived on the ship while the prison was under construction.

According to (Rubin, 1973), "it was one of the best and most liberal prison libraries of its time, a reputation it retains today."

Learn more at Prisoners' Right to Read (Intellectual Freedom Manual, Eighth Edition), ALA.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Bashore, Melvin L. (2003). Behind adobe walls and iron bars: the Utah Territorial Penitentiary Library. Libraries & Culture, 38(3), 236-249.

Selection and Intellectual Freedom

Many library leaders felt that social order could be maintained if the "common man" were involved with reading quality books. According to Wayne Wiegand, (1986, 230), the library community "shared a relatively closed definition of reality and believed a rational, informed electorate was essential to democracy." Rather than providing open access to information, librarians thought of themselves as intellectual gatekeepers with the mission of providing resources they felt met their noble mission.

In the early years of the American Library Association topics of intellectual freedom focused on selection decisions such as "to include fiction in a public library's collection, deciding upon the age at which a child might be permitted to select books considered serious adult reading, or agreeing upon uniform catalogin rules." (McCook, 2002, 3).

In Arsenals of a Democratic Culture, Sidney Ditzion (1947, 108) stated that

"the American Library Association was quick to sieze upon the humanitarian rationale as campaign material for more and better supported libraries... At the San Francisco conference of the American Library Association in 1891, informative circulars were distributed for the use of enterprising librarians. Their logic ran as follows: Since vice incubates ignorance, no lover of humanity could deny the special fitness of librarians to enlighten, purify, and elevate mankind... the social-economy aspect of libraries supported many an attempt to wheedle more money out of the taxpayer."

Best Hundred Books, Harvard University Library, PD In the late 19th century, many resources were available to assist the librarian in making selecting decisions. The Best Hundred Books stressed the importance of selection.

"Those who have seen the efforts made by the more intelligent working men and other uninstructed seekers after knowledge are well aware how many errors come from ignorance about the Best Books. There is something really pathetic, for instance, in the story of the Northumberland pitman who, after attending some science lectures, saved up his scanty money to buy a copy of Goldsmith's "Natural History", only to find when he took his treasure home that it was hopelessly antiquated." But the errors of choice made from carelessness are even greater than those made in ignorance." (Best Hundred Books, 1886, 1)

Not all the resources recommended the best books, some focused on prohibited books. For instance, Index Librorum Prohibitorum was published by the Roman Catholic Church from the 1500s through the 1900s. This index provided a long list of prohibited books.

"During the 19th century, an unprecedented increase in the number of books printed in the US and Europe resulted in the emergence of new and bewildering mass markets. In response, best-books lists, reading guides, library selection manuals, and lists of prohibited books appeared, all purporting to help readers, librarians, and book providers to navigate this new sea of printed matter.

Steeped in the moral imperatives of a Victorian culture of self-improvement, these guides attempted to mediate reading practice by championing the value of some books over others." (Harvard Library Website)

Skim the Index Librorum Prohibitorum from 1835 from Harvard University Library. It's helpful if you can read Latin!

Academic Libraries

Prior to the 19th century, academic libraries only provided limited access to their collections. The libraries were generally restricted to faculty and select students. Preservation and protection were the priority.

"The original nine colonial colleges were founded to provide training for colonial clergy; the colleges taught classics and theology, and their libraries were almost entirely composed donated books on those subjects. Books were scarce, traditional education was to be had at Cambridge or Oxford, and the preferred teaching method was recitation of the day's lesson from the common text. There was thus little demand placed on the small library." (Euster, 1995, 1)

Students formed literacy societies and built collections of interest in their academic fields. Ultimately, many of these society libraries were merged with the academic library.

Following the American Revolution, the state university was born. Higher education expandly rapidly with the creation of land-grant institutions. According to Euster (1995),

"by 1860 there were 217 colleges, enrolling nearly 17,000 students. However, most institutions existed in precarious financial circumstances, and the output of American publishing continued to be very limited and expensive. Collections were tiny, scarely larger than reading rooms, with limited access and no provision for use of materials in the library." (Euster, 1995, 1)

By the late 1800s, the German model for higher education had been adopted with an emphasis on science and inquiry. This shift changed the role of the academic library from preserving and protecting collections to building collections to meet the needs of researchers. Increasing faculty productivity lead to a brisk publishing environment and reduced costs for publications

Academic libraries expanded their open hours and services as electric lights became available in the late 1800s.

The photo below shows the reading room of the University of Michigan Library in Ann Arbor Michigan in 1883. Notice the lighting.

Patrons reading, LOC, PD

Beginning with law and medical libraries, other departmental libraries with colleges and universities grew in importance.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Neeley, James D. (2008). A library for engineering education: Frank O. Marvin and the University of Kansas, 1875-1915. Libraries & the Cultural Record, 43(4), 411-439.

University of Illinois Library
Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA

Founded in 1867, the library was established as part of the university charter. In November 26, 1867, a measure was passed by the Trustees to begin developing the core collection. Beginning with a collection of 644 book, the collection grew to one of the largest in the nation. In 1912, University President Edmund J. James proposed the creation of a research library to rival those found in German academic institutions.

To learn more, video the History of the University of Illinois Urbana Champaign Library video on YouTube.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Dibbell, Jeremy B. (2008). A library of the most celebrated & approved authors: the first purchase collection of Union College. Libraries & the Cultural Record, 43(4), 367-396.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Liao, Jing (2004). The genesis of the modern academic library in China: Western influences and the Chinese response. Libraries & Culture, 39(2), 161-174.

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Read Cairns, Audrey & Reid, Peter H. (2009). The historical development of the library of St. Mary's College, Blairs, Aberdeen, 1829-1986. Library & Information History, 25(4), 247-264.

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Read Paulus, Michael J. (2007). Beyond 'pabulum for the undergraduates': the development of Princeton Theological Seminary Library in the Nineteenth Century. Libraries & the Cultural Record, 42(3), 231-26.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Liao, Jing (2006). The contributions of nineteenth-century Christian missionaries to Chinese library reform. Libraries & the Cultural Records, 41(3), 360-371

Classification Systems

Cutter Wikimedia PDDuring the mid 1800s many librarians recognized the need for a change in library organization. Standardization took center stage with standards developed for catalog cards, drawers, and pockets.

Charles Ammi Cutter (1837-1903)
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

In 1869, Charles Ammi Cutter (right) became librarian of the Boston Athenaeum. He created a classification system known as Expansive Classification. The Cutter system became the basis for the Library of Congress classification system.

The sections of call number used to alphabetically designate author's names in the LC system are still known as "Cutter numbers."

In 1876, he published Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalogue.

Skim Cutter, Charles, A. (1896). Explanation of the Cutter Author-Marks.

Melvil Dewey (1851-1931)
New York, New York, USA

An American librarian, Melvil Dewey (1851-1931) was the chief librarian at Columbia University, director of the New York State Library, and executive officer of the University of the State of New York (below center). Dewey (below left) also founded the Library Bureau and was one of the founders of the American Library Association.

Cataloging

Dewey is best known for the invention of the Dewey Decimal system of classification. Based on the structure of knowledge first outlined by Sir Francis Bacon, Dewey created a decimal number scheme.

Published in 1876, Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library laid the groundwork for Dewey Decimal Classification.

Standardized Materials

As founder of the Library Bureau in Boston, Dewey established standards for many library supplies and equipment including index cards, filing cabinets, and catalog cards (below right). He introduced hanging vertical files at the Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago.

Dewey NYPL Wikimedia PDNew York State Library LOC PD 1890Dewey Card Catalog PD

Skim Dewey, Melvil (1887). Library Notes. Library Bureau.

Skim Dewey, Melvil (1894). Abridged Decimal Classification and Relativ Index for Libraries, Clippings, Notes, Etc

Skim Dewey, Melvil (1899). Library School Rules. Library Bureau.

Check out resources for Library Bureau.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Wiegand, Wayne A. (1998). The 'Amherst Method': The origins of the Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme. Libraries & Culture, 33(2), 175-194.

Anthony Panizzi (1797-1879)
British Museum Library, England

Working his way up from Assistant Librarian to Keeper of Printed Books and ultimately Chief Librarian, Anthony Panizzi (1797-1879) made major contributions to librarianship. For instance, Panizzi (below) drew the sketch that Syndey Smirke used to create the iconic British Museum Reading Room (below).

Under his direction, the British Museum Library grew from 235,000 to 540,000 volumes and was the largest library in the world at that time.

Cataloging

Panizzi created a new catalogue based on the Ninety-One Cataloguing Rules (1841). These rules became the basis for subsequent cataloging rules and are the basis for the ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description).

Copyright

Panizzi was also instrumental in enforcing the Copyright Act of 1842 that required British publishers to deposit a copy of their works printed in Britain.

Panizzi PDReading Room PD

Reading Room PD

 

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Galeffi, Agnese (2009). Biographical and cataloguing common ground. Panizzi and Lubetzky, kindred spirits separated by a century. Library & Information History, 25(4), 227-246.

Herbert Putnam, Wikimedia PDHerbert Putnam (1861-1955)
Washington, D.C. USA

After graduating from Harvard and Columbia University Law School, Herbert Putnam became the librarian of the Minneapolis Public Library then Boston Public Library. He sought to modernize the library management. He was also interested in promoting special rooms for children in libraries. He was also President of the American Library Association .

With the advice of Charles Ammi Cutter, Herbert Putnam developed the Library of Congress Classification (LCC) in 1897. Putnam was appointed the eighth Librarian of Congress in 1899. During his time at the Library of Congress, he replaced the fixed location system in place since the library's founding with his new system.

The Library of Congress Classification is still the most used system in research and academic libraries in the United States and some other countries.

Library Management

Increasingly, librarians focused on management issues related to their libraries. Directives related to everything from overdue books to handwashing were put into place. William Frederick Poole, a leading librarian in the 1800s stated "ample arrangements having been made for washing, the attendants are instructed to deliver no periodical or book to unclean hands" (Quoted in Williamson, 1963).

The photo below shows the original Topeka Public Library in 1889. Notice the trolley car out front and the unfinished capitol dome in the back. Courtesy Topeka & Shawnee County Public Library.

Topeka Public Library by Betsy Roe Topeka & Shawnee County Public Library

According to Harris (1972, 29), "as the turn of the century approached, librarians like Dewey had nearly succeeded in their goal of making the library a new bureaucracy adhering to more and more inflexible rules of operation. As a result librarians thought less and less about theoretical questions - especially those dealing with philosophy - and spent more and more time dealing with organization matters."

In the late 19th and early 20th century, many books were published related to library management. Some provided an overview to the profession, while others focused on specific areas. For instance, The Reference Department by Ernest Cushing Richardson provides the reference librarian an overview to the field. Other publications in this ALA series included Order and Accessions Department by F.F. Hopper and Bookbinding by A.L. Bailey.

Skim Smith, Lloyd Pearsall (1882). On the Classification of Books: A Paper Read Before the American Library Association, May 1882. Library Bureau.

Skim Reuben Hoar Library, Littleton, Mass (1889). This document is the catalog of a library.

Skim List of Subject Headings for Use in Dictionary Catalogs (1895). American Library Association.

Skim the Statutes of the University Relating to the Library (1903). This appendix provides a wonderful look at library statues from this time period.

Read Classified Illustrated Catalog of the Library Bureau (1891, 1893, 1894, 1897, 1899). Library Bureau.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Moran, Barbara B. (2010). E.W.B. Nicholson and the Bodeleian Library Staff-Kalendar. Libraries & the Cultural Record, 45(3), 297-319.

Library Facilities

With the introduction of library companies like Library Bureau, librarians were introduced to a wide variety of library furnishing, decorations, and storage options.

Specialty sales catalogs highlighted the latest innovations. In addition, advertisements could be found in the front and back pages of library-oriented magazines and books.

In the 1890s, new technologies were introduced such as the book-delivery system used at the Congressional Library in Washington shown below left and center.

Book delivery LOC PDLOC Book Conveyor LOC PDLight Ad in Public Libraries by Thomas Greenwood, PD

Lighting was an important element in a library. The advertisement above right was printed in Public Libraries by Thomas Greenwood (1890).

Book Disinfecting

In the last 1880s, people became obsessed with infectious disease. People were paranoid that "microbes" or "germs" could be transferred through books.

"The circulation of books in any infected family would of course be prohibited, and in the event of contagious disease appearing after a book had been borrowed, the latter should at once be disinfected, before being again placed in circulation... The work of disinfecting books is better done by the library authorities than by the borrower, and several methods are at present in operation... The simplest and best arrangement which has yet been introduced is the one in use at the Preston Public Library, and the invention of librarian, Mr W.S. Bramwell. A sketch of it is show. It is a metal fumigator... Let it be again stated that librarians with twenty-seven to forty years' experience of Public Library work have never known or heard of disease begin communicated by books to readers or even to the assistants who are constantly handling the books and breathing the air of the rooms in which they are placed." (Greenwood, 1890, 494-495)

Book Disinfecting Apparatus, Public Libraries, PD

International Libraries

The late 19th century was a time innovation and creation. However in other parts of the world, the 19th century ended in a state of unrest causing damage to many libraries.

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Tejasen, Chirabodee & Luyt, Brendan (2014). The Hophrasmut Wachirayan: Library and Club of Siamese aristocracy, 1881-1905. Information & Culture, 49(3), 386-400.

Hanlin Yuan Academy
Peking, China

The Halin Yuan Academy was the imperial center for scholarly study in Peking. The library contained the encyclopedic collection of volumes, Yong Lo Da Dia commissioned during the 15th century, the original texts of Siku Quan Shu, the Four Treasure Library.

In the summer of 1900, mounting tensions between the Boxers or Yihetuan Movement, the Chinese people, the Chinese government, and Western powers had reached a peak.

In June of 1900, Boxer and Imperial Chinese troops attacked foreigners living in Peking. As a fear tactic, the Chinese set fire to the native dwellings in the area. Possibly by accident, the Hanlin Academy was burned containing the "the quintessence of Chinese scholarship ... the oldest and richest library in the world" (Fleming, 1959, 121-122). An eyewitness stated that attempts were made to save the volumes of books, but it wasn't possible. According to Davis and Huanwen (1996), the Chinese accused the British of destroying the library, however the British maintained the Chinese started the fire and wind caused it to spread to the Hanlin. As soon as possible, British and other Legation entered the library and rescued volumes that were left intact. Many of the books were kept as souvenirs.

In August, a multi-national force consisting of forces from Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States arrived to relieve the seige of the foreign legations. Their objective was to rescue the 900 foreigners besieged there by the Chinese army.

During the occupation, foreigners from each country accused the others of being looters. While some looted for necessities like food and clothing, others sought riches. Missionary Luella Miner stated that "the conduct of the Russian soldiers is atrocious, the French are not much better, and the Japanese are looting and burning without mercy". (Preston, 1999, 284)

After the seige, the Emperor authorized the copying of literary treasures at the imperial library at Nanjing. More than 2000 scholars participated in the search and reproduction of texts.

Davis and Huanwen (1996) concluded,

"The destruction of what remained of the Hanlin library in 1900 through fire and pillage is more than just an interesting story. It has symbolic significance.

First, it portrays the fragile nature of a civilization's written heritage. Vast compilations seem to devalue the originals on which they were based; that is, what was not chosen to be copied and passed on was most often lost.

Second, in the case of China, it illustrates the threat of a modernity that causes antiquarian interests to suffer when practical relevance is unknown or at least unclear; that is, when a society seems to be moving ahead to a new era, the artifactual legacies of the ancient or even recent past seem of little interest except as curiosities.

Third, in times of national upheaval, such as the Boxer Uprising, cultural treasures can fall prey to popular mass movements that do not appreciate them and even view their destruction as a positive thing; that is, unlettered groups destroy or allow to be destroyed, books that represent to them the accoutrements of oppression.

Finally, this event, albeit a minor episode in national and world history for many, contains in microcosm the elements of the conflict of national cultures and the industrial powers of Nineteenth Century; that is, indigenous culture tends to suffer for a variety of reasons when other interests with greater power seriously threaten it."

The image below shows soldiers burning a Temple on the bank of the Pei Ho.

1900 China War, Wikimedia PD

Dig DeeperDig Deeper
Read Cheng, Huanwen & Davis, Donald G. (Winter 2007). Loss of a recorded heritage: destruction of Chinese books in the Peking Seige of 1900. Library Trends, 55(3), 431-441.

Royal Library of the Kings of Burma
Mandalay Palace, Burma

Constructed in the mid 1800s, the Mandalay Palace is the last royal palace of the Burmese monarchy. Between 1885-1887, British troops looted the palace and burned the royal library. The British turned the palace into a fort. The photo below was taken in 2007.

Mandalay Palace Wikimedia Commons  Hypernator PD

 

Resources

Best Hundred Books (1886). Pall Mall Gazette. Available: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:3693595

Bolton, Charles Knowles (1911). American Library History. American Library Association. Available: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/13899037

Budd, John M. (1998). The Academic Library: Its Context, Its Purpose, and Its Operation. Libraries Unlimited.

Clark, John Willis (1901). The Care of Books. Cambridge University Press Warehouse. Available: http://books.google.com/books?id=uvQ_AAAAYAAJ

Connor J. (2000). Guardians of Medical Knowledge: the genesis of the Medical Library Association. Rowman & Littlefield.

Davis, Donald G. & Huanwen, Cheng (1996). Destruction Of Chinese Books In The Peking Siege Of 1900. 62nd IFLA General Conference - Conference Proceedings - August 25-31, 1996. Available: http://archive.ifla.org/IV/ifla62/62-davd.htm

Ditzion, Sidney H. (1947). Arsenals of a democratic culture. American Library Assoication, 108-109; 110-128. Available: http://archive.org/stream/arsenalsofademoc006465mbp

Engelbarts, Rudolf (1972). Books in Stir. Scarecross Press.

Euster, Joanne R. (1995). The academic library: it's place and role in the institution. In Gerard B. McCabe & Ruth J. Person (eds.), Academic Libraries: Their Rationale and Role in American Higher Education. Greenwood Publishing Group. Preview Available: http://books.google.com/books?id=dfj13W9tUJYC

Fleming, Peter (1959). The Siege of Peking. Rupert Hart-Davis.

Friedman, Edwin (July 1950). Survey shows poor libraries in most penal institutions. Library Journal, 7, 1148-1149.

Garrett, Paul W. & MacCormick, Austin H. (1929). Handbook of American Prisons and Reformatories, 1929. National Society of Penal Information, Inc. Available: http://archive.org/stream/handbookofameric00natirich

Gould, Geo. M. (May 1898). The work of an association of medical librarians. Medical Libraries, 1(4). Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2047412/pdf/medlib00048-0003.pdf

Greenwood, Thomas (1890). Public Libraries: A History of the Movement and A Manual for the Organization and Management of Rate-Supported Libraries. Third Edition. Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, & Co. Limited. Available: http://www.archive.org/stream/publiclibrariesh00greeiala

Harris, Michael H. (1972). The Purpose of the American Public Library in Historical Perspective: Revisionist Interpretation. ERIC. Available: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED071668.pdf

Hayes, Kevin J. (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Early American Literature. Oxford University Press.

Jones, Kathleen E. (October 15, 1933). Libraries in correctional institutions. Library Journal, 58, 839.

Kane, Joseph N. (1964). Famous First Facts. H.W. Wilson Co.

McCabe, Gerard B. & Person, Ruth J. (1995). Academic Libraries: Their Rationale and Role in American Higher Education. Greenwood Publishing Group. Preview Available: http://books.google.com/books?id=dfj13W9tUJYC

McCook, Kathleen de la Pena (2002). Rocks in the Whirlpool: Equity of Access and the American Library Association. Available: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED462981.pdf

Potter, Alfred (1903). Descriptive and Historical Notes on the Library of Harvard University. Library of Harvard University. Available: http://books.google.com/books?id=UQEZAAAAMAAJ

Preston, Diana (1999). The Boxer Rebellion. Berkley Books.

Richardson, Ernest Cushing (1911). The Reference Department. American Library Association. Available: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:3106677?n=6

Rubin, Rhea Joyce (December 1973). U.S. Prison Library Services and Their Theoretical Bases. University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science. Available: http://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream..

Scott, Carrie E. (1915). Manual for Institution Libraries. American Library Association. Available: http://archive.org/stream/manualforinstitu00scotrich

Wiegand, Wayne A. (1986). The Politics of an Emerging Profession: The American Library Association, 1876-1917. Greenwood Press.

Williamson, William (1963). William Frederick Poole and Modern Library Movement. Columbia University Press.

Wright, Erik Olin. San Quentin Prison: A Portrait of Contradictions. Available: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/Published%20writing/POP.c4.pdf


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