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Critical and Creative Thinking - Bloom's Taxonomy

What are critical thinking and creative thinking?
 
What's Bloom's taxonomy and how is it helpful in project planning?
 
How are the domains of learning reflected in technology-rich projects?

artworkBenjamin Bloom (1956) developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior in learning. This taxonomy contained three overlapping domains: the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. Within the cognitive domain, he identified six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. These domains and levels are still useful today as you develop the critical thinking skills of your students.

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking involves logical thinking and reasoning including skills such as comparison, classification, sequencing, cause/effect, patterning, webbing, analogies, deductive and inductive reasoning, forecasting, planning, hypothesizing, and critiquing.

Creative thinking involves creating something new or original. It involves the skills of flexibility, originality, fluency, elaboration, brainstorming, modification, imagery, associative thinking, attribute listing, metaphorical thinking, forced relationships. The aim of creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence.
 
While critical thinking can be thought of as more left-brain and creative thinking more right brain, they both involve "thinking." When we talk about HOTS "higher-order thinking skills" we're concentrating on the top three levels of Bloom's Taxonomy: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Knowledge

collect

describe

identify

list

show

tell

tabulate

define

examine

label

name

retell

state

quote

enumerate

match

read

record

reproduce

copy

select

Examples: dates, events, places, vocabulary, key ideas, parts of diagram, 5Ws

Comprehension

associate

compare

distinguish

extend

interpret

predict

differentiate

contrast

describe

discuss

estimate

group

summarize

order

cite

convert

explain

paraphrase

restate

trace

Examples: find meaning, transfer, interpret facts, infer cause & consequence, examples

Application

apply

classify

change

illustrate

solve

demonstrate

calculate

complete

solve

modify

show

experiment

relate

discover

act

administer

articulate

chart

collect

compute

construct

determine

develop

establish

prepare

produce

report

teach

transfer

use

Examples: use information in new situations, solve problems

Analysis

analyze

arrange

connect

divide

infer

separate

classify

compare

contrast

explain

select

order

breakdown

correlate

diagram

discriminate

focus

illustrate

infer

outline

prioritize

subdivide

points out

prioritize

Examples: recognize and explain patterns and meaning, see parts and wholes

Synthesis

combine

compose

generalize

modify

invent

plan

substitute

create

formulate

integrate

rearrange

design

speculate

rewrite

adapt

anticipate

collaborate

compile

devise

express

facilitate

reinforce

structure

substitute

intervene

negotiate

reorganize

validate

Examples: discuss "what if" situations, create new ideas, predict and draw conclusions

Evaluation

assess

compare

decide

discriminate

measure

rank

test

convince

conclude

explain

grade

judge

summarize

support

appraise

criticize

defend

persuade

justify

reframe

Examples: make recommendations, assess value and make choices, critique ideas

Affective Domain


Domain Attributes: interpersonal relations, emotions, attitudes, appreciations, and values id

accepts

attempts

challenges

defends

disputes

joins

judges

contributes

praises

questions

shares

supports

volunteers

 

Resources on Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview from Family Education Network's TeacherVision

Learning Skills Program: Bloom's Taxonomy from University of Victoria - This page lists the six levels of the cognitive domain with examples.

Other Sites

Designing and Managing MCQs from University of Cape Town, South Africa

Major Categories in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by G. Krumme, University of Washington, Seattle

Critical Thinking

Free Brainstorming Training from Infinite Innovations Ltd - Learn basic and advanced techniques for brainstorming.

Mission: Critical from San Jose State University - This website provides an advanced look at critical thinking and specifically analysis of arguments and persuasion.

 

Examples and Applications of Critical Thinking 

Evaluating Primary Sources from Library of Congress's American Memory - This website does a great job providing an example of using Bloom's Taxonomy for evaluating primary resource materials.

Integrating Critical Thinking Skills Into the Classroom by A. Buchanan - This article defines critical thinking and provides steps for integrating the ideas into the classroom. 

Layered Curriculum by K.F. Nunley - The Layered Curriculum approach focuses on increasing levels of complexity. Explore some of the many examples

Creative Thinking

Creativity Links by C. Osborne - This page links to great resources on creative thinking.

Edward de Bono's Methods & Concepts of Lateral Thinking - This page provides an overview of deBono's ideas about creativity.

Introduction to Creative Thinking by R. Harris from VirtualSalt - This page compares critical and creative thinking and discusses the myths of creative thinking.

Tutorial on Creativity, Brainstorming and Innovation from Infinite Innovations Ltd. - This tutorial provides basic information about creativity, brainstorming, and innovation. It also provides ideas and activities.

Creativity Pool - This is a database of creative and original ideas. Submit your own or check to see if someone else has thought of the same thing.

Build A Project

Select a topic and a technology. Brainstorm examples of outcomes at different levels of Bloom's Taxonomy.


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