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Motivation is the willingness and desire to participate or do something.

Some students find school boring. Motivation is particularly important to young adolescents who are quick to question the importance of school assignments (Lipscomb, 2003).

Intrinsic motivation is evident when people engage in activities without outside suggestion or pressure. This motivation may come from the desire for enjoyment or a feeling of obligation. For example, some students enjoy reading graphic novels for pleasure even though they may not be on the "Accelerated Reader" book list.

Extrinsic motivation occurs when people take action based on tangible or intangible rewards or other outside influences. For example, teachers may entice children with stickers or promises of class parties.

Although experts are intrinsically motivated, novice learners need guidance and encouragement. Motivation can be enhanced in novices if they use high-quality self-regulatory processes such as self-monitoring. The level of self-satisfaction increases as they see their progress (Schunk).

eyeRead Student Motivation from NETC.

Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design (1983) describes the importance of student attention, relevance of activity to needs, confidence in achieving success, and a sense of satisfaction.


eye means readRead Key Word: Motivation in THE BLUE BOOK by Callison and Preddy, 437-441.

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Keller, J. M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Lipscomb, G. (January/February 2003). I guess it was pretty fun: Using WebQuests in the middle school classroom. The Clearing House, 76(3) 152-155.

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