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Teaching and Learning Essentials

Research supports the idea that learner-centered classrooms enhance student learning, social, and emotional outcomes. In these environments, teachers focus on the individual differences and learning needs of children. Then develop a range of instructional activities and learning support to address these needs (Lambert & McCombs). Many educational theories support this approach including Learner-Centered Psychnology Principles (LCP).

Marzano, Pickering, and Pollack (2001), conducted a meta-analysis of research studies on instructional strategies. They identified nine strategies to enhance student performance.

What learner-centered strategies can be used to help students become more information fluent?

Scaffolding Across the Curriculum

In the chapter Empowered Learning in Curriculum Connections through the Library edited by Stripling and Hughes-Hassell, Violet H. Harada (2003, p. 53) stresses that "scaffolding is a critical strategy that cuts across curriculum and facets of thinking". This guided assistance helps students "bridge the gap between their current abilities and their projected goals."

Harada identified the following specific procedures involved scaffolding (2003, p. 53):

eyeRead Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers from the NETC's Focus on Effectiveness.
How is this strategy useful in teaching and learning?

Areas to Explore

As you think about providing scaffolding to students, consider the many areas where young people need assistance in developing skills and the approaches that will help build these skills. A few examples are listed below;


eyeRead Setting Objectives from NETC.

Recording Keeping

Record keeping facilitates self-regulation in students by promoting self-awareness.


Human Interaction



Think about how you will provide feedback and assistance in each of these areas.

eyeRead Providing Feedback from NETC.

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